Verbal Reasoning

For questions 1 to 6, select one entry for each blank from the corresponding column of choices. Fill all blanks in the way that best completes the text.
1The name of the Sloane Matthew Library has long been______; even longtime city residents assume it is a run-of-the-mill library, never suspecting what art treasures it contains.

2Although economic growth has conventionally been viewed as the______ for poverty in underdeveloped regions, this prescriptions’ negative environmental side effects are becoming a concern.

3Even as the economy struggled, the secretary stood by his______ long-term outlook, saying that technology was allowing business to make deep-rooted improvements in their productivity, the best indicator of an economy’s ability to grow

4The villas and compounds that proliferated during the building boom of the 1990s were (i) ______, far too (ii) ______for people of average means.



5The governor has considerable political talents, but as a speaker he is far less (i) ______than his opponent, whose oratorical skills are (ii) ______ .



6There is no point in combing through the director's work for hints of ideological significance. It is unnecessary: his ideology ----- Marxist, anti-imperialist, aligned with the perceived interests of the powerless and the marginal — is the (i) ______ of his films. The clarity and force of that ideology arc considerable, but its (ii) ______sometimes bothers critics, who often scold the director for lacking (iii) ______.




For each of Questions 7 to 12, select one answer choice unless otherwise directed.
Question 7 is based on this passage.

Despite a dramatic increase in the number of people riding bicycles for recreation in Parkville, a recent report by the Parkville Department of Transportation shows that the number of accidents involving bicycles has decreased for the third consecutive year.

7Which of the following, if true during the last three years, best reconciles the apparent discrepancy in the facts?

Question 8 to 10 are based on this passage.

What makes a worker ant perform one particular task rather than another? From the 1970s to the mid-1980s, researchers emphasized internal factors within individual ants, such as polymorphism, the presence in the nest of workers of different shapes and sizes, each suited to a particular task. Other elements then considered to have primary influence upon an ant’s career were its age-it might change tasks as it got older-and its genetics. However, subsequent ant researchers have focused on external prompts for behavior. In advocating this approach, Deborah Gordon cites experiments in which intervention in a colony’s makeup perturbed worker activity. By removing workers or otherwise altering the nest conditions, researchers were able to change the tasks performed by individual workers.

Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.

8According to the passage, which of the following factors were considered from the 1970s to the mid-1980s to influence the division of labor among a colony’s worker ants?

Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.

9It can be inferred from the passage that Gordon and earlier researchers would agree with which of the following statements about worker ants?

Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.

10The last sentence has which of the following functions in the passage?

Questions 11 and 12 are based on this passage.

This passage is adapted from material published in 2001.

In 1998 scientists using the neutrino detector in Kamioka, Japan, were able to observe several thousand neutrinos --- elusive, tiny subatomic particles moving at nearly the speed of light and passing through almost everything in their path. The Kamioka findings have potentially far-reaching ramifications. They strongly suggest that the neutrino hat mass, albeit an infinitesimal amount. Even a tiny mass means that neutrinos would outweigh all the universe^ visible matter, because of their vast numbers. The findings also suggest that a given neutrino does not have one stable mass or one stable identity; instead it oscillates from one identity or “flavor” (physicists’ term describing how neutrinos interact with other particles) to another. This oscillation may explain why, although the Sun is a large source of neutrinos, detectors capture far fewer solar neutrinos than the best theory of solar physics predicts: the neutrinos may be changing to flavors undetectable by detectors. Finally, while the standard particle- physics model—which describes all matter in terms of twelve fundamental particles and four fundamental forces --- docs not allow for neutrinos with mass, there are theories that do. Further experiments to confirm that neutrinos have mass could help physicists determine which, if any of these theories is correct.

11The primary purpose of the passage is to

12According to the passage, one significant implication of the discovery that neutrinos have mass is that such a discovery would

For questions 13 to 16, select the two answer choices that, when used to complete the sentence, fit the meaning of the sentence as a whole and produce completed sentences that are alike in meaning.
13In a strong indication of the way the entire party is_____ the candidate with moderate credentials, the outspokenly conservative former mayor of a major city has promised to raise a substantial amount of money for the candidate's campaign.

14Mr. Hirsch says he will aim to preserve the foundation’s support of______ thinkers, individuals who are going against the trends in a field or an acknowledged set of opinions.

15In France cultural subsidies are______: producers of just about any film can get an advance from the government against box-office receipts, even though most such loans are never fully repaid.

16The problem of avoiding duplicate names—such as for Internet domain names or for e-mail---is particularly ______when the name has to fit into a format that allows only a finite number of possibilities.

For each of Questions 17 to 20, select one answer choice unless otherwise directed.
Question 17 is based on the passage.

Mayor: Four years ago, when we reorganized the city police department in order to save money, critics claimed that the reorganization would make the police less responsive to citizens and would thus lead to more crime. The police have compiled theft statistics from the years following the reorganization that show that the critics were wrong. There was an overall decrease in reports of thefts of all kinds, including small thefts.

17Which of the following, if true, most seriously challenges the mayor's argument?

Questioii 18 to 20 are based on this passage.

The binary planet hypothesis —that Earth and the Moon formed simultaneously by the accretion of smaller objects—does not explain why the Moon’s iron core is so small relative to the Moon's total volume, compared with Earths core relative to Earth's total volume. According to the giant-impact hypothesis, the Moon was created during a collision between Earth and a large object about the size of Mars. Computer simulations of this impact show that both of the objects would melt in the impact and the dense core of the impactor would fall as molten rock into the liquefied iron core of Earth. The ejected matter—mantle rock that had surrounded the cores of both objects— would be almost devoid of iron. This matter would become the Moon.

Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.

18According to the passage, the binary planet hypothesis holds that

19The giant-impact hypothesis as described in the passage answers all of the following questions EXCEPT:

20Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?


1ABCE is a square, and BCDE is a parallelogram.


Quantity A: The area of square ABCE

Quantity B: The area of parallelogram BCDE

2n is an integer.

Quantity A: (-1)n(-1)n+2

Quantity B: 1

3The population of Country X for 1980 was p. The population of Country X increased by 3.8 percent in each of the next two years.

Quantity A: The population of Country X for 1982.

Quantity B: 1.076p

4x ≠ 0

Quantity A: x2

Quantity B: x(x+5)

5x=2, y=3,z=5

Quantity A: x-1yz-2

Quantity B: (xz/y)-2

6x < y-2

Quantity A: The average (arithmetic mean) of x and y

Quantity B: y-1

7x is an integer greater than 3.

Quantity A: The number of even factors of 2x

Quantity B: The number of odd factors of 3x

8If (a,b) is a point in the xy-plane, then the distance between (a,b) and the x-axis is |b| and the distance between (a,b) and the y-axis is |a|.

Quantity A: The total number of points P in the xy-plane such that the distance between P and one of the axes is 10 and the distance between P and the other axis is 8

Quantity B: The total number of points Q in the xy-plane such that the distance between Q and one of the axes is 5 and the distance between Q and the other axis is 4.

9For a sample of 210 households, one-third of the households do not have any pets, one-third of the households each have 1 pet, and the rest of the households each have 2 pets. Which of the following statistics for the sample are equal to 1?

Indicate all such statistics.

10According to a tax rate formula for a certain year, the amount of tax owed by an individual whose annual income was between $31,850 and $77,100 was equal to a base tax of $4,386 plus 24 percent of the annual income that exceeded $31,850. According to this formula, what was the amount of tax owed by an individual whose annual income that year was $42,000?

11Each week a salesperson receives a commission that is equal to 12 percent of the first $500 of sales plus 20 percent of additional sales. If the salesperson received a commission of $380 last week, what was the total amount of the sales that the salesperson made last week?

12Last Monday a certain store sold 17 wrenches at x dollars each. Last Tuesday the store reduced its prices and sold an additional 8 wrenches at 0.5x dollars each. Which of the following is equal to the average (arithmetic mean) price, in dollars, of the 25 wrenches that the store sold last Monday and Tuesday?

13In a distribution of 8,500 different measurements of the variable x, 26.5 is the 56th percentile and 37.1 is the 78th percentile. Which of the following is closest to the number of measurements of x that are in the distribution such that 26.5 ≤ x ≤37.1 ?

Questions 14 and 16 are based on the following data.



14How many of the age-groups each accounted for more than 15 percent of the total number of occupational injuries in State X in 1998?

15In 1998, if one-half of the occupational injuries in the combine 34-and-under age- groups were incurred by men, what was the number of occupational injuries incurred by men in the combined 35-and-over age-groups?

16For the 55-64 age-group in 1998, the average (arithmetic mean) number of work- hours lost per occupational injury was 48.5. If a workweek is 40 work-hours, which of the following is closets to the total number of workweeks lost due to occupational injuries in the 55-64 age-group in 1998?

17Which of the following could be the equation of the graph in the xy-plane shown above?


18The figure shows a smaller square with sides of length y inscribed in a larger square with sides of length x. Which of the following relationships between x, y, and z must be true ?


19The table shows the frequency distribution of the random variable X. What is the median of the distribution of the values of X ?


20The functions f and g are defined by f (x) = |2x +1| and g(x)=3 for all numbers x. What is the least value of c for which f (c) = g (c)?