Verbal Reasoning

1History has recast the 15th century Florentine monk Girolamo Savonarola as a rabble-rousing zealot lording over the "bonfire of the vanities”; yet this so-called _______ --mainly because he directed his censure at the church--was a crusader for austerity and thus a check on a papacy that had run a course of profligacy.

2Many claim that the 19th Century institution of snake’s oil—the peddling of items that seldom live up to their vaunted claims—is anything but moribund; one need only look so far as the Internet to see that the tradition is ____________.

3Mulcahy, in averring that most literary criticism has become so filled with abstruse jargon as to be practically indecipherable to anyone save its practitioners, is himself (i) ___________: his main point will be discernible only to the very community he seeks to (ii) ___________.

Blank (i)

Blank (ii)

4Amongst Irish-American playwrights of the early 20th Century, her work stood out as a(n) ____________, not so much because of its striking originality but because other contemporaneous works tended to be ____________ on most social issues. Her plays, by contrast, allowed the audience to come to its own conclusions, a technique that foreshadowed much of 20th century theatre.


Blank (ii)

5Recent meteorological conditions in areas of the northeastern part of the country have been so ____________as to leave scientists ____________. Even those models scientists developed to ____________ these extreme outliers have been found wanting.


Blank (ii)

Blank (iii)

66. While some maintain that the recent proliferation of uncredited web sources will have a(n) (i) ______________ effect on scholarship, others argue that the effects will be far more (ii) ______________, claiming that academics are sensible enough not to (iii) ______________ unattributed sources.




As to when the first people populated the American subcontinents is hotly debated. Until recently, the Clovis people, based on evidence found in New Mexico, were thought to have been the first to have arrived, some 13,000 years ago. Yet evidence gathered from other sites suggest the Americas had been settled at least 1,000 years prior to the Clovis. The “Clovis first” idea, nonetheless, was treated as gospel, backed by supporters who, at least initially, outright discounted any claims that suggested precedence by non-Clovis people. While such a stance smacked of fanaticism, proponents did have a solid claim: if the Clovis peoples crossed the Bering Strait 13,000 years ago, only after it had become ice-free, how would a people have been able to make a similar trip but over ice?

A recent school of thought, backed by Weber, provides the following answer: pre-Clovis people reached the Americas by relying on a sophisticated maritime culture, which allowed them to take advantage of refugia, or small areas in which aquatic life flourished. Thus they were able to make the long journey by hugging the coast as far south as to what is today British Columbia. Additionally, they were believed to have fashioned a primitive form of crampon so that they would be able to dock in these refugia and avail themselves of the microfauna. Still, such a theory begs the question as to how such a culture developed.

The Solutrean theory has been influential in answering this question, a fact that may seem paradoxical--and startling--to those familiar with its line of reasoning: the Clovis people were actually Solutreans, an ancient seafaring culture along the Iberian peninsula, who had--astoundingly given the time period--crossed into the Americas via the Atlantic ocean. Could not a similar Siberian culture, if not the pre-Clovis people themselves, have displayed equal nautical sophistication?

Even if one subscribes to this line of reasoning, the “Clovis first” school still have an objection: proponents of a pre-Clovis people rely solely on the Monte Verde site in Chile, a site so far south that its location begs yet another question: What of the 6,000 miles of coastline between the ice corridor and Monte Verde? Besides remains found in a network of caves in Oregon, there has been scant evidence of a pre-Clovis people. Nonetheless, Meade and Pizinsky claim that a propitious geologic accident could account for this discrepancy: Monte Verde was located near a peat bog that essentially fossilized the village. Archaeologists uncovered two wooden stakes, which, at one time, were used in twelve huts. Furthermore, plant species associated with areas 150 miles away were found, suggesting a trade network. These findings indicate that the Clovis may not have been the first to people the Americas, yet more excavation, both in Monte Verde and along the coast, must be conducted in order to determine the extent of pre-Clovis settlements in the Americas.

7In the context in which it appears, the phrase “avail themselves of” most nearly means

8It can be inferred from the passage that the reason the author finds the Solutrean hypothesis both startling and paradoxical is that

9It can be most reasonably inferred from the passage that in regard to the manner in which the Monte Verde village was preserved that

10If it is true that a trade network between pre-Clovis people had been established, then which of the following could be expected to be found at settlements near Monte Verde?

11The Canadian elk has traditionally been limited in its geographic range by the presence of elderberries, its primary source of food, which only grow up until a certain point in the tundra. A recent rise in temperatures, however, has seen a spread in the growth of elderberries northwards into the tundra. Therefore, the overall range of the Canadian elk can be expected to increase.

Which of the following, if true, best casts doubt on the argument?

12For one undertaking such a complex dissertation, Marcus gave a remarkably ________ response when the committee asked him a probing question, thereby creating the impression that he had only a superficial knowledge of the subject.

13Winston ____ researched prospective universities, listing both the positive and negative attributes of each school, before choosing the one that suited him best.

14A tantalizing paradox in the field of number theory—especially for the neophyte—is that even one with little training can pose a legitimate question that can ______________ a seasoned expert.

15Tentative, fearful even, his first forays into the theatrical arts were hardly ________.

There has always been controversy over the nature of poetic language. To some, poetic language should be special, removed from the language of everyday (thus, the dictum, ‘The language of the age is never the language of poetry’). To others, it should be closely in touch with everyday, or, perhaps, be ‘current language heightened.’

To Ralph Waldo Emerson, the whole language is in any case ‘fossil poetry.’ Statements of this kind to some extent miss the point, which is to stress the enormous range of linguistic expression that is found under the heading poetry. At one extreme, there are poems that are as far removed from everyday speech as it is possible to imagine; at the other, there are poems that, if it were not for the division into lines, would closely resemble prose.

16It can be inferred from Emerson’s quote that he implied which of the following?

17“As far removed from daily speech as possible” most closely parallels which of the following?

What little scholarship has existed on Ernest Hemingway--considering his stature--has focused on trying to unmask the man behind the bravura. Ultimately, most of these works have done little more than to show that Hemingway the myth and Hemingway the man were not too dissimilar (Hemingway lived to hunt big game so should we be surprised at his virility, not to mention that of many of the author’s--chiefly male--protagonists?). In the last few years, several biographies have reversed this trend, focusing on Hemingway near the end of his life: isolated and paranoid, the author imagined the government was chasing him (he was not completely wrong on this account). Ironically, the hunter had become the hunted, and in that sense, these latest biographers have provided--perhaps unwittingly--the most human portrait of the writer yet.

18It can be inferred from the passage that the author considers the latest Hemingway biographies a departure from traditional biographies in that these latest biographies

1919. With which of the following would the author of the passage agree?

2020. In the last few years, a drastic spike in sea temperatures around Prudhoe Bay has caused the eggs of snow crabs to hatch earlier in the year than they had previously. As a result, baby snow crabs are more likely to be caught by deep sea fishing boats, since deep sea fishing boats are more numerous in Arctic waters during the fall season than they are during the winter season.

Which of the following pieces of information is necessary to evaluate the argument?


1Of the students in a certain group, 22 percent are juniors and 26 percent are seniors.

Quantity A: The ratio of the number of juniors in the group to the number of seniors in the group

Quantity B: 4/5

2The area of a circular region is 5π

Quantity A: The diameter of the circular region

Quantity B:

3The reciprocal of x - 2 is x +2

Quantity A: x

Quantity B: 3

4x > 0

Quantity A: The area of a square region with diagonal of length 2x

Quantity B: The area of a circular region with diameter of length x



ABC is an equilateral triangle.

Quantity A: The length of AB

Quantity B: 2

61/2 < r <1

Quantity A: 2r

Quantity B: 1/r

7In a data set of 10,000 numbers varying from 20 to 80, the number 62 is the 60th percentile and the number 74 is the nth percentile..

Quantity A: n

Quantity B: 70

8A historian asserts that at the beginning of 1852, the population of a certain mining town was 16,000. The historian also asserts that for each of the years from 1849 through 1853, the town’s population at the beginning of the year was twice that of the preceding year. According to the historian, what was the range of the town’s populations at the beginning of each year from 1848 through 1853?

9A box at a yard sale contains 3 different china dinner sets, each consisting of 5 plates. A customer will randomly select 2 plates to check for defects. What is the probability that the 2 plates selected will be from the same dinner set?

10Line l in the xy-plane contains points A and B with coordinates (-4,5) and (6,-1), respectively. Line k is perpendicular to l and contains the midpoint of line segment AB. Which of the following statements are true?

Indicate all such statements.

11What is the remainder when 3283 is divided by 5?

12If x < y, which of the following must be true?

13A rectangular solid P has height 2c and a base of width a and length b. Two other rectangular solids, Q and R, each have height c and bases of width a and length b. Which of the following represents the amount by which the sum of the surface areas of Q and R exceeds the surface areas of P?

Questions 14 and 16 are based on the following data.

A survey of 550 male managers and 650 female managers was conducted. All 1,200 managers identified whether, for each of six characteristics, the characteristic is important to consider when hiring a new employee. For each of the six characteristics, the percent of managers surveyed who identified that characteristic as important to consider is given in the following table.


14Which of the following statements about the managers surveyed must be true?

15The number of managers surveyed who identified work experience as an important characteristic to consider was approximately what percent greater than the number who identified appropriate attire and behavior as an important characteristic to consider?

16If 48 percent of the managers surveyed identified both ability to follow directions and computer expertise as an important characteristics to consider, what percent of the managers surveyed identified neither of these characteristics as important to consider?

1717. If the product of 7 consecutive integers is equal to the median of the integers, what is the least of the 7 integers?

1818. On his trip to the airport, Grant drove a total of 9 miles. His average speed on the trip was x miles per hour, where 30 ≤ x ≤35. Which of the following could be the total number of minutes that Grant took to make the trip?

Indicate all such numbers of minutes.

19If n is an integer, what is the least possible value of 3n+(3)(3-n)

2020. At a certain elementary school, 10 percent of the fifth-grade students are members of the school band. If 12 percent of the fifth-grade boys and 8 percent of the fifth-grade girls are members of the band, what percent of the fifth-grade students at the school are boys?