Reading Test



Each passage or pair of passages below is followed by a number of questions. After reading each passage or pair, choose the best answer to each question based on what is stated or implied in the passage or passages and in any accompanying graphics (such as a table or graph).

Questions 1-10 are based on the following passage

This passage is adapted from William Maxwell, The Folded Leaf. ©1959 by William Maxwell. Originally published in 1945.

The Alcazar Restaurant was on Sheridan Road

near Devon Avenue. It was long and narrow, with

tables for two along the walls and tables for four

linedown the middle. The decoration was art moderne,

5except for the series of murals depicting the four

seasons, and the sick ferns in the front window.

Lymie sat down at the second table from the cash

register, and ordered his dinner. The history book,

which he propped against the catsup and the glass

10sugar bowl, had been used by others before him.

Blank pages front and back were filled in with maps,

drawings, dates, comic cartoons, and organs of the

body; also with names and messages no longer clear

and never absolutely legible. On nearly every other

15page there was some marginal notation, either in ink

or in very hard pencil. And unless someone had

upset a glass of water, the marks on page 177 were

from tears.

While Lymie read about the Peace of Paris, signed

20on the thirtieth of May, 1814, between France and

the Allied powers, his right hand managed again and

again to bring food up to his mouth. Sometimes he

chewed, sometimes he swallowed whole the food that

he had no idea he was eating. The Congress of

25Vienna met, with some allowance for delays, early in

November of the same year, and all the powers

engaged in the war on either side sent

plenipotentiaries. It was by far the most splendid and

important assembly ever convoked to discuss and

30determine the affairs of Europe. The Emperor of

Russia, the King of Prussia, the Kings of Bavaria,

Denmark, and Wurttemberg, all were present in

person at the court of the Emperor Francis I in the

Austrian capital. When Lymie put down his fork and

35began to count them off, one by one, on the fingers

of his left hand, the waitress, whose name was Irma,

thought he was through eating and tried to take his

plate away. He stopped her. Prince Metternich (his

right thumb) presided over the Congress, and

40Prince Talleyrand (the index finger) represented


A party of four, two men and two women, came

into the restaurant, all talking at once, and took

possession of the center table nearest Lymie.

45The women had shingled hair and short tight skirts

which exposed the underside of their knees when

they sat down. One of the women had the face of a

young boy but disguised by one trick or another

(rouge, lipstick, powder, wet bangs plastered against

50the high forehead, and a pair of long pendent

earrings) to look like a woman of thirty-five, which

as a matter of fact she was. The men were older. They

laughed more than there seemed any occasion for,

while they were deciding between soup and shrimp

55cocktail, and their laughter was too loud. But it was

the women’s voices, the terrible not quite sober pitch

of the women’s voices which caused Lymie to skim

over two whole pages without knowing what was on

them. Fortunately he realized this and went back.

60Otherwise he might never have known about the

secret treaty concluded between England, France,

and Austria, when the pretensions of Prussia and

Russia, acting in concert, seemed to threaten a

renewal of the attack. The results of the Congress

65were stated clearly at the bottom of page 67 and at

the top of page 68, but before Lymie got halfway

through them, a coat that he recognized as his

father’s was hung on the hook next to his chair.

Lymie closed the book and said, “I didn’t think you

70were coming.”

Time is probably no more unkind to sporting

characters than it is to other people, but physical

decay unsustained by respectability is somehow more

noticeable. Mr. Peters’ hair was turning gray and his

75scalp showed through on top. He had lost weight

also; he no longer filled out his clothes the way he

used to. His color was poor, and the flower had

disappeared from his buttonhole. In its place was an

American Legion button.

80Apparently he himself was not aware that there

had been any change. He straightened his tie

self-consciously and when Irma handed him a menu,

he gestured with it so that the two women at the next

table would notice the diamond ring on the fourth

85finger of his right hand. Both of these things, and

also the fact that his hands showed signs of the

manicurist, one can blame on the young man who

had his picture taken with a derby hat on the back of

his head, and also sitting with a girl in the curve of

90the moon. The young man had never for one second

deserted Mr. Peters. He was always there, tugging at

Mr. Peters’ elbow, making him do things that were

not becoming in a man of forty-five.

1Over the course of the passage, the primary focus shifts from

2The main purpose of the first paragraph is to

3It can reasonably be inferred that Irma, the waitress, thinks Lymie is “through eating” (line 37) because

4Lymie’s primary impression of the “party of four” (line 42) is that they

5Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

6The narrator indicates that Lymie finally closes the history book because

7The primary impression created by the narrator’s description of Mr. Peters in lines 74-79 is that he is

8The main idea of the last paragraph is that Mr. Peters

9Which choice best supports the conclusion that Mr. Peters wants to attract attention?

10As used in line 93, “becoming” most nearly means

Questions 11-21 are based on the following passages

Passage 1 is adapted from Catharine Beecher, Essay on Slavery and Abolitionism. Originally published in 1837. Passage 2 is adapted from Angelina E. Grimké, Letters to Catharine Beecher. Originally published in 1838. Grimké encouraged Southern women to oppose slavery publicly. Passage 1 is Beecher’s response to Grimké’s views. Passage 2 is Grimké’s response to Beecher.

Passage 1

Heaven has appointed to one sex the superior,

and to the other the subordinate station, and this

without any reference to the character or conduct of

lineeither. It is therefore as much for the dignity as it is

5for the interest of females, in all respects to conform

to the duties of this relation. . . . But while woman

holds a subordinate relation in society to the other

sex, it is not because it was designed that her duties

or her influence should be any the less important, or

10all-pervading. But it was designed that the mode of

gaining influence and of exercising power should be

altogether different and peculiar. . . .

A man may act on society by the collision of

intellect, in public debate; he may urge his measures

15by a sense of shame, by fear and by personal interest;

he may coerce by the combination of public

sentiment; he may drive by physical force, and he

does not outstep the boundaries of his sphere. But all

the power, and all the conquests that are lawful to

20woman, are those only which appeal to the kindly,

generous, peaceful and benevolent principles.

Woman is to win every thing by peace and love;

by making herself so much respected, esteemed and

loved, that to yield to her opinions and to gratify her

55wishes, will be the free-will offering of the heart. But

this is to be all accomplished in the domestic and

social circle. There let every woman become so

cultivated and refined in intellect, that her taste and

judgment will be respected; so benevolent in feeling

30and action; that her motives will be reverenced;—so

unassuming and unambitious, that collision and

competition will be banished;—so“gentle and easy to

be entreated,” as that every heart will repose in her

presence; then, the fathers, the husbands, and the

35sons, will find an influence thrown around them,

to which they will yield not only willingly but

proudly. . . .

A woman may seek the aid of co-operation and

combination among her own sex, to assist her in her

40appropriate offices of piety, charity, maternal and

domestic duty; but whatever, in any measure, throws

a woman into the attitude of a combatant, either for

herself or others—whatever binds her in a party

conflict—whatever obliges her in any way to exert

45coercive influences, throws her out of her

appropriate sphere. If these general principles are

correct, they are entirely opposed to the plan of

arraying females in any Abolition movement.

Passage 2

The investigation of the rights of the slave has led

50me to a better understanding of my own. I have

found the Anti-Slavery cause to be the high school of

morals in our land—the school in which human

rights are more fully investigated, and better

understood and taught, than in any other. Here a

55great fundamental principle is uplifted and

illuminated, and from this central light, rays

innumerable stream all around.

Human beings have rights, because they are moral

beings: the rights of all men grow out of their moral

60nature; and as all men have the same moral nature,

they have essentially the same rights. These rights

may be wrested from the slave, but they cannot be

alienated: his title to himself is as perfect now, as is

that of Lyman Beecher:1 it is stamped on his moral

65being, and is, like it, imperishable. Now if rights are

founded in the nature of our moral being, then the

mere circumstance of sex does not give to man higher

rights and responsibilities, than to woman. To

suppose that it does, would be to deny the

70self-evident truth, that the “physical constitution is

the mere instrument of the moral nature.” To

suppose that it does, would be to break up utterly the

relations, of the two natures, and to reverse their

functions, exalting the animal nature into a monarch,

75and humbling the moral into a slave; making the

former a proprietor, and the latter its property.

When human beings are regarded as moral

beings, sex, instead of being enthroned upon the

summit, administering upon rights and

80responsibilities, sinks into insignificance and

nothingness. My doctrine then is, that whatever it is

morally right for man to do, it is morally right for

woman to do. Our duties originate, not from

difference of sex, but from the diversity of our

85relations in life, the various gifts and talents

committed to our care, and the different eras in

which we live.

Lyman Beecher was a famous minister and the father of Catharine Beecher.

11In Passage 1, Beecher makes which point about the status of women relative to that of men?

12Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

13In Passage 1, Beecher implies that women’s effect on public life is largely

14As used in line 2, “station” most nearly means

15As used in line 12, “peculiar” most nearly means

16What is Grimké’s central claim in Passage 2?

17In Passage 2, Grimké makes which point about human rights?

18Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

19Which choice best states the relationship between the two passages?

20Based on the passages, both authors would agree with which of the following claims?

21Beecher would most likely have reacted to lines 65-68 (“Now . . . woman”) of Passage 2 with

Questions 22-31 are based on the following passage

This passage is adapted from Bryan Walsh, “Whole Food Blues: Why Organic Agriculture May Not Be So Sustainable.” ©2012 by Time Inc.

When it comes to energy, everyone loves

efficiency. Cutting energy waste is one of those goals

that both sides of the political divide can agree on,

lineeven if they sometimes diverge on how best to get

5there. Energy efficiency allows us to get more out of

our given resources, which is good for the economy

and (mostly) good for the environment as well. In

an increasingly hot and crowded world, the only

sustainable way to live is to get more out of less.

10Every environmentalist would agree.

But change the conversation to food, and

suddenly efficiency doesn’t look so good.

Conventional industrial agriculture has become

incredibly efficient on a simple land to food basis.

15Thanks to fertilizers, mechanization and irrigation,

each American farmer feeds over 155 people

worldwide. Conventional farming gets more and

more crop per square foot of cultivated land—

over 170 bushels of corn per acre in Iowa, for

20example—which can mean less territory needs to

be converted from wilderness to farmland.

And since a third of the planet is already used for

agriculture—destroying forests and other wild

habitats along the way—anything that could help us

25produce more food on less land would seem to be

good for the environment.

Of course, that’s not how most environmentalists

regard their arugula [a leafy green]. They have

embraced organic food as better for the planet—and

30healthier and tastier, too—than the stuff produced by

agricultural corporations. Environmentalists disdain

the enormous amounts of energy needed and waste

created by conventional farming, while organic

practices—forgoing artificial fertilizers and chemical

35pesticides—are considered far more sustainable.

Sales of organic food rose 7.7% in 2010, up to $26.7

billion—and people are making those purchases for

their consciences as much as their taste buds.

Yet a new meta-analysis in Nature does the math

40and comes to a hard conclusion: organic farming

yields 25% fewer crops on average than conventional

agriculture. More land is therefore needed to

produce fewer crops—and that means organic

farming may not be as good for the planet as

45we think.

In the Nature analysis, scientists from McGill

University in Montreal and the University of

Minnesota performed an analysis of 66 studies

comparing conventional and organic methods across

5034 different crop species, from fruits to grains to

legumes. They found that organic farming delivered

a lower yield for every crop type, though the disparity

varied widely. For rain-watered legume crops like

beans or perennial crops like fruit trees, organic

55trailed conventional agriculture by just 5%. Yet for

major cereal crops like corn or wheat, as well as most

vegetables—all of which provide the bulk of the

world’s calories—conventional agriculture

outperformed organics by more than 25%.

60The main difference is nitrogen, the chemical key

to plant growth. Conventional agriculture makes use

of 171 million metric tons of synthetic fertilizer each

year, and all that nitrogen enables much faster plant

growth than the slower release of nitrogen from the

65compost or cover crops used in organic farming.

When we talk about a Green Revolution, we really

mean a nitrogen revolution—along with a lot

of water.

But not all the nitrogen used in conventional

70fertilizer ends up in crops—much of it ends up

running off the soil and into the oceans, creating vast

polluted dead zones. We’re already putting more

nitrogen into the soil than the planet can stand over

the long term. And conventional agriculture also

75depends heavily on chemical pesticides, which can

have unintended side effects.

What that means is that while conventional

agriculture is more efficient—sometimes much more

efficient—than organic farming, there are trade-offs

80with each. So an ideal global agriculture system, in

the views of the study’s authors, may borrow the best

from both systems, as Jonathan Foley of the

University of Minnesota explained:

The bottom line? Today’s organic farming

85practices are probably best deployed in fruit and

vegetable farms, where growing nutrition (not

just bulk calories) is the primary goal. But for

delivering sheer calories, especially in our staple

crops of wheat, rice, maize, soybeans and so on,

90conventional farms have the advantage right


Looking forward, I think we will need to deploy

different kinds of practices (especially new,

mixed approaches that take the best of organic

95and conventional farming systems) where they

are best suited—geographically, economically,

socially, etc.



22As used in line 14, “simple” most nearly means

23According to the passage, a significant attribute of conventional agriculture is its ability to

24Which choice best reflects the perspective of the “environmentalists” (line 27) on conventional agriculture?

25Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

26Which statement best expresses a relationship between organic farming and conventional farming that is presented in the passage?

27Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

28According to Foley, an “ideal global agriculture system” (line 80)

29In line 88, “sheer” most nearly means

30Which statement is best supported by the information provided in figure 1?

31Which of the following claims is supported by figure 2?

Questions 32-41 are based on the following passage

This passage is adapted from John Bohannon, “Why You Shouldn’t Trust Internet Comments.” ©2013 by American Association for the Advancement of Science.

The “wisdom of crowds” has become a mantra of

the Internet age. Need to choose a new vacuum

cleaner? Check out the reviews on online merchant

lineAmazon. But a new study suggests that such online

5scores don’t always reveal the best choice. A massive

controlled experiment of Web users finds that such

ratings are highly susceptible to irrational “herd

behavior”—and that the herd can be manipulated.

Sometimes the crowd really is wiser than you. The

10classic examples are guessing the weight of a bull or

the number of gumballs in a jar. Your guess is

probably going to be far from the mark, whereas the

average of many people’s choices is remarkably close

to the true number.

15But what happens when the goal is to judge

something less tangible, such as the quality or worth

of a product? According to one theory, the wisdom

of the crowd still holds—measuring the aggregate of

people’s opinions produces a stable, reliable

20value. Skeptics, however, argue that people’s

opinions are easily swayed by those of others. So

nudging a crowd early on by presenting contrary

opinions—for example, exposing them to some very

good or very bad attitudes—will steer the crowd in a

25different direction. To test which hypothesis is true,

you would need to manipulate huge numbers of

people, exposing them to false information and

determining how it affects their opinions.

A team led by Sinan Aral, a network scientist at

30the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in

Cambridge, did exactly that. Aral has been secretly

working with a popular website that aggregates news

stories. The website allows users to make comments

about news stories and vote each other’s comments

35up or down. The vote tallies are visible as a number

next to each comment, and the position of the

comments is chronological. (Stories on the site get an

average of about ten comments and about three votes

per comment.) It’s a follow-up to his experiment

40using people’s ratings of movies to measure how

much individual people influence each other online

(answer: a lot). This time, he wanted to know how

much the crowd influences the individual, and

whether it can be controlled from outside.

45For five months, every comment submitted by a

user randomly received an “up” vote (positive); a

“down” vote (negative); or as a control, no vote at all.

The team then observed how users rated those

comments. The users generated more than

50100,000 comments that were viewed more than

10 million times and rated more than 300,000 times

by other users.

At least when it comes to comments on news

sites, the crowd is more herdlike than wise.

55Comments that received fake positive votes from the

researchers were 32% more likely to receive more

positive votes compared with a control, the team

reports. And those comments were no more likely

than the control to be down-voted by the next viewer

60to see them. By the end of the study, positively

manipulated comments got an overall boost of about

25%. However, the same did not hold true for

negative manipulation. The ratings of comments that

got a fake down vote were usually negated by an up

65vote by the next user to see them.

“Our experiment does not reveal the psychology

behind people’s decisions,” Aral says, “but an

intuitive explanation is that people are more

skeptical of negative social influence. They’re more

70willing to go along with positive opinions from other


Duncan Watts, a network scientist at Microsoft

Research in New York City, agrees with that

conclusion. “[But] one question is whether the

75positive [herding] bias is specific to this site” or true

in general, Watts says. He points out that the

category of the news items in the experiment had a

strong effect on how much people could be

manipulated. “I would have thought that ‘business’ is

80pretty similar to ‘economics,’ yet they find a much

stronger effect (almost 50% stronger) for the former

than the latter. What explains this difference? If we’re

going to apply these findings in the real world, we’ll

need to know the answers.”

85Will companies be able to boost their products by

manipulating online ratings on a massive scale?

“That is easier said than done,” Watts says. If people

detect—or learn—that comments on a website are

being manipulated, the herd may spook and leave



32Over the course of the passage, the main focus shifts from a discussion of an experiment and its results to

33The author of the passage suggests that crowds may be more effective at

34Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

35Which choice best supports the view of the “skeptics” (line 20)?

36Which action would best address a question Watts raises about the study?

37As used in line 85, “boost” most nearly means

38As used in line 86, “scale” most nearly means

39In the figure, which category of news has an artificially up-voted mean score of 2.5?

40According to the figure, which category of news showed the smallest difference in mean score between artificially up-voted comments and control comments?

41Data presented in the figure most directly support which idea from the passage?

Questions 42-52 are based on the following passage

This passage is adapted from Joshua Foer, Moonwalking with Einstein: The Art and Science of Remembering Everything. ©2011 by Joshua Foer.

In 2000, a neuroscientist at University College

London named Eleanor Maguire wanted to find out

what effect, if any, all that driving around the

linelabyrinthine streets of London might have on

5cabbies’ brains. When she brought sixteen taxi

drivers into her lab and examined their brains in an

MRI scanner, she found one surprising and

important difference. The right posterior

hippocampus, a part of the brain known to be

10involved in spatial navigation, was 7 percent larger

than normal in the cabbies—a small but very

significant difference. Maguire concluded that all of

that way-finding around London had physically

altered the gross structure of their brains. The more

15years a cabbie had been on the road, the more

pronounced the effect.

The brain is a mutable organ, capable—within

limits—of reorganizing itself and readapting to new

kinds of sensory input, a phenomenon known as

20neuroplasticity. It had long been thought that the

adult brain was incapable of spawning new

neurons—that while learning caused synapses to

rearrange themselves and new links between brain

cells to form, the brain’s basic anatomical structure

25was more or less static. Maguire’s study suggested the

old inherited wisdom was simply not true.

After her groundbreaking study of London

cabbies, Maguire decided to turn her attention to

mental athletes. She teamed up with Elizabeth

30Valentine and John Wilding, authors of the academic

monograph Superior Memory, to study ten

individuals who had finished near the top of the

World Memory Championship. They wanted to find

out if the memorizers’ brains were—like the London

35cabbies’—structurally different from the rest of ours,

or if they were somehow just making better use of

memory abilities that we all possess.

The researchers put both the mental athletes and a

group of matched control subjects into MRI scanners

40and asked them to memorize three-digit numbers,

black-and-white photographs of people’s faces, and

magnified images of snowflakes, while their brains

were being scanned. Maguire and her team thought it

was possible that they might discover anatomical

45differences in the brains of the memory champs,

evidence that their brains had somehow reorganized

themselves in the process of doing all that intensive

remembering. But when the researchers reviewed the

imaging data, not a single significant structural

50difference turned up. The brains of the mental

athletes appeared to be indistinguishable from those

of the control subjects. What’s more, on every single

test of general cognitive ability, the mental athletes’

scores came back well within the normal range. The

55memory champs weren’t smarter, and they didn’t

have special brains.

But there was one telling difference between the

brains of the mental athletes and the control subjects:

When the researchers looked at which parts of the

60brain were lighting up when the mental athletes were

memorizing, they found that they were activating

entirely different circuitry. According to the

functional MRIs [fMRIs], regions of the brain that

were less active in the control subjects seemed to be

65working in overdrive for the mental athletes.

Surprisingly, when the mental athletes were

learning new information, they were engaging

several regions of the brain known to be involved in

two specific tasks: visual memory and spatial

70navigation, including the same right posterior

hippocampal region that the London cabbies had

enlarged with all their daily way-finding. At first

glance, this wouldn’t seem to make any sense.

Why would mental athletes be conjuring images in

75their mind’s eye when they were trying to learn

three-digit numbers? Why should they be navigating

like London cabbies when they’re supposed to be

remembering the shapes of snowflakes?

Maguire and her team asked the mental athletes

80to describe exactly what was going through their

minds as they memorized. The mental athletes said

they were consciously converting the information

they were being asked to memorize into images, and

distributing those images along familiar spatial

85journeys. They weren’t doing this automatically, or

because it was an inborn talent they’d nurtured since

childhood. Rather, the unexpected patterns of neural

activity that Maguire’s fMRIs turned up were the

result of training and practice.

42According to the passage, Maguire’s findings regarding taxi drivers are significant because they

43Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

44As used in line 24, “basic” most nearly means

45Which question was Maguire’s study of mental athletes primarily intended to answer?

46Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

47As used in line 39, “matched” most nearly means

48The main purpose of the fifth paragraph (lines 57-65) is to

49According to the passage, when compared to mental athletes, the individuals in the control group in Maguire’s second study

50The passage most strongly suggests that mental athletes are successful at memorization because they

51Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

52The questions in lines 74-78 primarily serve to

Writing and Language Test



Each passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For some questions, you will consider how the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. For other questions, you will consider how the passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence structure, usage, or punctuation. A passage or a question may be accompanied by one or more graphics (such as a table or graph) that you will consider as you make revising and editing decisions.

Some questions will direct you to an underlined portion of a passage. Other questions will direct you to a location in a passage or ask you to think about the passage as a whole.

After reading each passage, choose the answer to each question that most effectively improves the quality of writing in the passage or that makes the passage conform to the conventions of standard written English. Many questions include a“NO CHANGE”option. Choose that option if you think the best choice is to leave the relevant portion of the passage as it is.

Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage
Prehistoric Printing

Paleontologists are using modern technology to gain a greater understanding of the distant past. With the aid of computed tomography (CT) scanning and 3-D printing, researchers are able to create accurate models of prehistoric fossils. 1 These models have expanded researchers’ knowledge of ancient species and 2 swear to advance the field of paleontology in the years to come.

CT scanners use X-rays to map the surface of a fossil in minute detail, recording as many as one million data points to create a digital blueprint. A 3-D printer then builds a polymer model based on this blueprint, much as a regular computer printer reproduces digital documents on paper. 3 Whereas the head of an ordinary computer printer moves back and forth while printing ink onto paper, the corresponding part of a 3-D printer moves in multiple dimensions while squirting out thin layers of melted polymer plastic. The plastic hardens quickly, 4 it allows the printer to build the layers of the final model. Compared with older ways of modeling fossils, scanning and printing in this way is extremely versatile.

[1] One significant benefit of 3-D printing technology is its ability to create scale reproductions of fossils. [2] But now 3-D scale models can be rearranged with ease, which is a huge boon to scientists. [3] A team led by Drexel University professor Kenneth Lacovara is making models of dinosaur bones one-tenth the bones’ original sizes 5 in order to learn how they fit together when the animals were alive. [4] In the past, such research was limited by the weight and bulk of the fossils as well as 6 its preciousness and fragility. [5] In many cases, scientists had to rearrange bones virtually, using artists’ renderings. 7

Because CT scanners can map objects that are impossible to excavate, CT scanning and 3-D printing can also be used to reproduce fossils that scientists cannot observe firsthand. 8 By contrast, researchers from the National Museum of Brazil 9 has relied on this technique to study a fossilized skeleton that was discovered protruding from a rock at an old São Paulo railroad site. 10 The fossil was too delicate to be removed from the rock. Because of the fossil’s delicate nature, the team dug up a block of stone around the fossil and brought it to their lab. With the aid of a CT scanner and a 3-D printer, they were able to produce a resin model of the fossil. Examining the model, the researchers determined that 11 one had found a new species, a 75-million-year-old crocodile. While not every discovery will be as dramatic as this one, paleontologists anticipate further expanding their knowledge of ancient life-forms as CT scanning and 3-D printing continue to make fossils more accessible.

1At this point, the writer is considering adding the following sentence. "Fossils provide paleontologists with a convenient way of estimating the age of the rock in which the fossils are found." Should the writer make this addition here?


3The writer is considering deleting the underlined sentence. Should the sentence be kept or deleted?




7To make this paragraph most logical, sentence 2 should be placed



10Which choice most effectively combines the underlined sentences?


Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage
Thomas Nast, the Crusading Cartoonist

“Stop them pictures!” Legend has it that the corrupt politician William “Boss” Tweed once used those words when ordering someone to offer a bribe to Thomas Nast, an artist who had become famous for cartoons that called for reforms to end corruption. 12 As a result, Tweed’s attempt to silence the artist failed, and Nast’s cartoons, published in magazines like Harper’s Weekly, actually played a key role in bringing Boss Tweed and his cronies to justice.

13 There were powerful political organizations in the 1860s and the 1870s. The organizations were known as “political machines” and started taking control of city governments. These political machines were able to pack legislatures and courts with hand-picked supporters by purchasing 14 votes, a form of election fraud involving the exchange of money or favors for votes. Once a political machine had control of enough important positions, its members were able to use public funds to enrich themselves and their friends. Boss Tweed’s Tammany Hall group, which controlled New York 15 City in the 1860s—stole more than $30 million,the equivalent of more than $365 million today. 16 Tweed had been elected to a single two-year term in Congress in 1852. Tammany Hall was so powerful and 17 corrupt that, the New York Times, commented “There is absolutely nothing . . . in the city which is beyond the reach of the insatiable gang.”

Given the extent of Tweed’s power, it is remarkable that a single cartoonist could have played such a significant role in bringing about his downfall. Nast’s cartoons depicted Tweed as a great big bloated thief. One of the artist’s most 18 famous images showed Tweed with a bag of money in place of his 19 head. Another featured Tweed leaning against a ballot box with the caption “As long as I count the votes, what are you going to do about it?” These cartoons were so effective in part because many of the citizens who supported Tweed were illiterate and thus could not read the newspaper accounts of his criminal activities. Nast’s cartoons, though, widely exposed the public to the injustice of Tweed’s political machine.

Nast’s campaign to bring down Tweed and the Tammany Hall gang was ultimately successful. In the elections of 1871, the public voted against most of the Tammany Hall candidates, greatly weakening Tweed’s power. Eventually, Tweed and his gang were 20 persecuted for a number of charges, including fraud and larceny, and many of them were sent to jail. In 1875 Tweed escaped from jail and fled to Spain and unwittingly 21 brought about one final 22 pinnacle for the power of political cartoons: A Spanish police officer recognized Tweed from one of Nast’s cartoons. Consequently, Tweed was sent back to jail, and Nast was hailed as the man who toppled the great Tammany Hall machine.


13Which choice most effectively combines the underlined sentences?



16The writer is considering deleting the underlined sentence. Should the sentence be kept or deleted?



19Which choice adds the most relevant supporting information to the paragraph?




Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage
Rethinking Crowdfunding in the Arts

Crowdfunding is a popular way to raise money using the Internet. The process sounds simple: an artist, entrepreneur, or other innovator takes his or her ideas straight to the public via a crowdfunding website. The innovator creates a video about the project and offers, in exchange for donations, a series of “perks,” from acknowledgment on a social media site to a small piece of art. Many crowdfunding programs are all-or-nothing; in other words, the innovator must garner 100 percent funding for the project or the money is refunded to the donors. At 23 it’s best, the system can give creators direct access to millions of potential backers.

The home page of one leading crowdfunding site features a project to manufacture pinhole cameras on a 3!D printer. 24 The idea is obviously very attractive. An obscure method of photography may be made available to many with little expense. Within weeks, the project was 621 percent funded. In contrast, on the same page, a small Brooklyn performance venue is attempting to raise money for its current season. The venue features works of performance art showcased in a storefront window. Those who have seen the space consider it vital. 25 However, that group may not be large enough; with just fourteen days to go in the fund-raising period, the campaign is only 46 percent funded.

Artists such as these Brooklyn performers find that crowdfunding exacerbates problems that already exist. 26 Work, that is easily understood and appreciated, is supported, while more complex work goes unnoticed. 27 Time that could be used creating art is spent devising clever perks to draw the attention of potential contributors. 28 In addition, audiences may contain many “free 29 riders,” they did not make contributions.Ironically, the success of crowdfunding may weaken overall funding for the arts if people begin to feel that paying for the art 30 loved by them is someone else’s responsibility.

[1] One innovative playwright has woven the deficiencies of the system into her crowdfunding model. [2] Though the price for her tickets was higher than that of tickets for comparable shows, it was still affordable to most theatergoers—and reflected the real cost of the performance. [3] She presented the total cost for producing her play on a crowdfunding site. [4] Then she divided the total cost by the number of people she expected to attend the performance. [5] The result of the calculation was the minimum donor price, and only donors who paid at least the minimum ticket price were allowed to attend the performance. [6] By subverting the presumption that money used for her project is an altruistic donation, the playwright showed that 31 our work has monetary value to those who enjoy it. 32

Question 33 asks about the graphic



24Which choice most effectively combines the underlined sentences?



27At this point, the writer is considering adding the following sentence. “Crowdfunding tends to attract contributors from a wide variety of professional fields.” Should the writer make this addition here?





32To make this paragraph most logical, sentence 2 should be placed

33Which choice offers an accurate interpretation of the data in the graphs?

Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage
Investigative Journalism: An Evolving American Tradition

[1] The recent precipitous decline of print journalism as a viable profession has exacerbated long-held concerns about the state of investigative reporting in the United States. [2] Facing lower print circulation and diminished advertising revenue, many major newspapers have reduced or eliminated investigative resources. [3] Newspapers, the traditional nurturing ground for investigative journalism, have been hit especially hard by the widespread availability of free news online. [4] To survive, investigative journalism must continue to adapt to the digital age. 34

It is not difficult to understand why a cash-strapped, understaffed publication might feel pressure to cut teams of investigative 35 reporter’s—their work is expensive and time-consuming. 36 Taking on the public interest, investigative journalism involves original, often long-form reporting on such topics as 37 illegal activities, street crime, corporate wrongdoing, and political corruption. An investigative story involves one or more experienced journalists dedicating their full energy and the resources of the publisher to a piece for a prolonged period of time. Expensive legal battles may ensue. The results of this work, though costly, have helped keep those in power accountable. The exposure by Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein of government misconduct in the Watergate scandal resulted in the resignation of President Richard Nixon in 1974. More recently, Seymour Hersh, reporting for the New Yorker in 2004, helped publicize the mistreatment of Iraqi prisoners by US personnel at Abu Ghraib during the Iraq War. 38 In these and other cases, exposure from reporters has served as an important 39 blockade to or scolding of malfeasance.

While worrisome, the decline of traditional print media 40 could not entail the end of investigative journalism. 41 Although many newsrooms have reduced their staff, some still employ investigative reporters. Nonprofit 42 enterprises such as the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project have begun to fill the void created by staff losses at newspapers and magazines. Enterprising freelance reporters, newly funded by nonprofits, make extensive use of social media,including blogs and Twitter, to foster a public conversation about key issues. The Help Me Investigate project, 43 for example, solicited readers to submit tips and information related to ongoing stories to its website. Far from marking the end of investigative journalism, 44 cooperation among journalists and ordinary citizens has been facilitated by the advent of the digital age through an increase in the number of potential investigators.

34For the sake of the logic and cohesion of the paragraph, sentence 3 should be




38At this point, the writer is considering adding the following sentence. “In 1954, Edward R. Murrow and Fred Friendly produced episodes of the CBS television show See It Now that contributed to the end of US senator Joseph McCarthy’s anticommunist ‘witch hunts.’ ” Should the writer make this addition here?


40Which choice most effectively suggests that the “end of investigative journalism” is a real possibility but one that can be prevented?

41Which choice most effectively sets up the examples in the following sentences?