65 MINUTES, 52 QUESTIONS
Each passage or pair of passages below is followed by a number of questions. After reading each passage or pair, choose the best answer to each question based on what is stated or implied in the passage or passages and in any accompanying graphics (such as a table or graph).
This passage is adapted from William Maxwell, The Folded Leaf. ©1959 by William Maxwell. Originally published in 1945.
The Alcazar Restaurant was on Sheridan Road
near Devon Avenue. It was long and narrow, with
tables for two along the walls and tables for four
linedown the middle. The decoration was art moderne,
5except for the series of murals depicting the four
seasons, and the sick ferns in the front window.
Lymie sat down at the second table from the cash
register, and ordered his dinner. The history book,
which he propped against the catsup and the glass
10sugar bowl, had been used by others before him.
Blank pages front and back were filled in with maps,
drawings, dates, comic cartoons, and organs of the
body; also with names and messages no longer clear
and never absolutely legible. On nearly every other
15page there was some marginal notation, either in ink
or in very hard pencil. And unless someone had
upset a glass of water, the marks on page 177 were
While Lymie read about the Peace of Paris, signed
20on the thirtieth of May, 1814, between France and
the Allied powers, his right hand managed again and
again to bring food up to his mouth. Sometimes he
chewed, sometimes he swallowed whole the food that
he had no idea he was eating. The Congress of
25Vienna met, with some allowance for delays, early in
November of the same year, and all the powers
engaged in the war on either side sent
plenipotentiaries. It was by far the most splendid and
important assembly ever convoked to discuss and
30determine the affairs of Europe. The Emperor of
Russia, the King of Prussia, the Kings of Bavaria,
Denmark, and Wurttemberg, all were present in
person at the court of the Emperor Francis I in the
Austrian capital. When Lymie put down his fork and
35began to count them off, one by one, on the fingers
of his left hand, the waitress, whose name was Irma,
thought he was through eating and tried to take his
plate away. He stopped her. Prince Metternich (his
right thumb) presided over the Congress, and
40Prince Talleyrand (the index finger) represented
A party of four, two men and two women, came
into the restaurant, all talking at once, and took
possession of the center table nearest Lymie.
45The women had shingled hair and short tight skirts
which exposed the underside of their knees when
they sat down. One of the women had the face of a
young boy but disguised by one trick or another
(rouge, lipstick, powder, wet bangs plastered against
50the high forehead, and a pair of long pendent
earrings) to look like a woman of thirty-five, which
as a matter of fact she was. The men were older. They
laughed more than there seemed any occasion for,
while they were deciding between soup and shrimp
55cocktail, and their laughter was too loud. But it was
the women’s voices, the terrible not quite sober pitch
of the women’s voices which caused Lymie to skim
over two whole pages without knowing what was on
them. Fortunately he realized this and went back.
60Otherwise he might never have known about the
secret treaty concluded between England, France,
and Austria, when the pretensions of Prussia and
Russia, acting in concert, seemed to threaten a
renewal of the attack. The results of the Congress
65were stated clearly at the bottom of page 67 and at
the top of page 68, but before Lymie got halfway
through them, a coat that he recognized as his
father’s was hung on the hook next to his chair.
Lymie closed the book and said, “I didn’t think you
Time is probably no more unkind to sporting
characters than it is to other people, but physical
decay unsustained by respectability is somehow more
noticeable. Mr. Peters’ hair was turning gray and his
75scalp showed through on top. He had lost weight
also; he no longer filled out his clothes the way he
used to. His color was poor, and the flower had
disappeared from his buttonhole. In its place was an
American Legion button.
80Apparently he himself was not aware that there
had been any change. He straightened his tie
self-consciously and when Irma handed him a menu,
he gestured with it so that the two women at the next
table would notice the diamond ring on the fourth
85finger of his right hand. Both of these things, and
also the fact that his hands showed signs of the
manicurist, one can blame on the young man who
had his picture taken with a derby hat on the back of
his head, and also sitting with a girl in the curve of
90the moon. The young man had never for one second
deserted Mr. Peters. He was always there, tugging at
Mr. Peters’ elbow, making him do things that were
not becoming in a man of forty-five.
Passage 1 is adapted from Catharine Beecher, Essay on Slavery and Abolitionism. Originally published in 1837. Passage 2 is adapted from Angelina E. Grimké, Letters to Catharine Beecher. Originally published in 1838. Grimké encouraged Southern women to oppose slavery publicly. Passage 1 is Beecher’s response to Grimké’s views. Passage 2 is Grimké’s response to Beecher.
Heaven has appointed to one sex the superior,
and to the other the subordinate station, and this
without any reference to the character or conduct of
lineeither. It is therefore as much for the dignity as it is
5for the interest of females, in all respects to conform
to the duties of this relation. . . . But while woman
holds a subordinate relation in society to the other
sex, it is not because it was designed that her duties
or her influence should be any the less important, or
10all-pervading. But it was designed that the mode of
gaining influence and of exercising power should be
altogether different and peculiar. . . .
A man may act on society by the collision of
intellect, in public debate; he may urge his measures
15by a sense of shame, by fear and by personal interest;
he may coerce by the combination of public
sentiment; he may drive by physical force, and he
does not outstep the boundaries of his sphere. But all
the power, and all the conquests that are lawful to
20woman, are those only which appeal to the kindly,
generous, peaceful and benevolent principles.
Woman is to win every thing by peace and love;
by making herself so much respected, esteemed and
loved, that to yield to her opinions and to gratify her
55wishes, will be the free-will offering of the heart. But
this is to be all accomplished in the domestic and
social circle. There let every woman become so
cultivated and refined in intellect, that her taste and
judgment will be respected; so benevolent in feeling
30and action; that her motives will be reverenced;—so
unassuming and unambitious, that collision and
competition will be banished;—so“gentle and easy to
be entreated,” as that every heart will repose in her
presence; then, the fathers, the husbands, and the
35sons, will find an influence thrown around them,
to which they will yield not only willingly but
proudly. . . .
A woman may seek the aid of co-operation and
combination among her own sex, to assist her in her
40appropriate offices of piety, charity, maternal and
domestic duty; but whatever, in any measure, throws
a woman into the attitude of a combatant, either for
herself or others—whatever binds her in a party
conflict—whatever obliges her in any way to exert
45coercive influences, throws her out of her
appropriate sphere. If these general principles are
correct, they are entirely opposed to the plan of
arraying females in any Abolition movement.
The investigation of the rights of the slave has led
50me to a better understanding of my own. I have
found the Anti-Slavery cause to be the high school of
morals in our land—the school in which human
rights are more fully investigated, and better
understood and taught, than in any other. Here a
55great fundamental principle is uplifted and
illuminated, and from this central light, rays
innumerable stream all around.
Human beings have rights, because they are moral
beings: the rights of all men grow out of their moral
60nature; and as all men have the same moral nature,
they have essentially the same rights. These rights
may be wrested from the slave, but they cannot be
alienated: his title to himself is as perfect now, as is
that of Lyman Beecher:1 it is stamped on his moral
65being, and is, like it, imperishable. Now if rights are
founded in the nature of our moral being, then the
mere circumstance of sex does not give to man higher
rights and responsibilities, than to woman. To
suppose that it does, would be to deny the
70self-evident truth, that the “physical constitution is
the mere instrument of the moral nature.” To
suppose that it does, would be to break up utterly the
relations, of the two natures, and to reverse their
functions, exalting the animal nature into a monarch,
75and humbling the moral into a slave; making the
former a proprietor, and the latter its property.
When human beings are regarded as moral
beings, sex, instead of being enthroned upon the
summit, administering upon rights and
80responsibilities, sinks into insignificance and
nothingness. My doctrine then is, that whatever it is
morally right for man to do, it is morally right for
woman to do. Our duties originate, not from
difference of sex, but from the diversity of our
85relations in life, the various gifts and talents
committed to our care, and the different eras in
which we live.
Lyman Beecher was a famous minister and the father of Catharine Beecher.
This passage is adapted from Bryan Walsh, “Whole Food Blues: Why Organic Agriculture May Not Be So Sustainable.” ©2012 by Time Inc.
When it comes to energy, everyone loves
efficiency. Cutting energy waste is one of those goals
that both sides of the political divide can agree on,
lineeven if they sometimes diverge on how best to get
5there. Energy efficiency allows us to get more out of
our given resources, which is good for the economy
and (mostly) good for the environment as well. In
an increasingly hot and crowded world, the only
sustainable way to live is to get more out of less.
10Every environmentalist would agree.
But change the conversation to food, and
suddenly efficiency doesn’t look so good.
Conventional industrial agriculture has become
incredibly efficient on a simple land to food basis.
15Thanks to fertilizers, mechanization and irrigation,
each American farmer feeds over 155 people
worldwide. Conventional farming gets more and
more crop per square foot of cultivated land—
over 170 bushels of corn per acre in Iowa, for
20example—which can mean less territory needs to
be converted from wilderness to farmland.
And since a third of the planet is already used for
agriculture—destroying forests and other wild
habitats along the way—anything that could help us
25produce more food on less land would seem to be
good for the environment.
Of course, that’s not how most environmentalists
regard their arugula [a leafy green]. They have
embraced organic food as better for the planet—and
30healthier and tastier, too—than the stuff produced by
agricultural corporations. Environmentalists disdain
the enormous amounts of energy needed and waste
created by conventional farming, while organic
practices—forgoing artificial fertilizers and chemical
35pesticides—are considered far more sustainable.
Sales of organic food rose 7.7% in 2010, up to $26.7
billion—and people are making those purchases for
their consciences as much as their taste buds.
Yet a new meta-analysis in Nature does the math
40and comes to a hard conclusion: organic farming
yields 25% fewer crops on average than conventional
agriculture. More land is therefore needed to
produce fewer crops—and that means organic
farming may not be as good for the planet as
In the Nature analysis, scientists from McGill
University in Montreal and the University of
Minnesota performed an analysis of 66 studies
comparing conventional and organic methods across
5034 different crop species, from fruits to grains to
legumes. They found that organic farming delivered
a lower yield for every crop type, though the disparity
varied widely. For rain-watered legume crops like
beans or perennial crops like fruit trees, organic
55trailed conventional agriculture by just 5%. Yet for
major cereal crops like corn or wheat, as well as most
vegetables—all of which provide the bulk of the
world’s calories—conventional agriculture
outperformed organics by more than 25%.
60The main difference is nitrogen, the chemical key
to plant growth. Conventional agriculture makes use
of 171 million metric tons of synthetic fertilizer each
year, and all that nitrogen enables much faster plant
growth than the slower release of nitrogen from the
65compost or cover crops used in organic farming.
When we talk about a Green Revolution, we really
mean a nitrogen revolution—along with a lot
But not all the nitrogen used in conventional
70fertilizer ends up in crops—much of it ends up
running off the soil and into the oceans, creating vast
polluted dead zones. We’re already putting more
nitrogen into the soil than the planet can stand over
the long term. And conventional agriculture also
75depends heavily on chemical pesticides, which can
have unintended side effects.
What that means is that while conventional
agriculture is more efficient—sometimes much more
efficient—than organic farming, there are trade-offs
80with each. So an ideal global agriculture system, in
the views of the study’s authors, may borrow the best
from both systems, as Jonathan Foley of the
University of Minnesota explained:
The bottom line? Today’s organic farming
85practices are probably best deployed in fruit and
vegetable farms, where growing nutrition (not
just bulk calories) is the primary goal. But for
delivering sheer calories, especially in our staple
crops of wheat, rice, maize, soybeans and so on,
90conventional farms have the advantage right
Looking forward, I think we will need to deploy
different kinds of practices (especially new,
mixed approaches that take the best of organic
95and conventional farming systems) where they
are best suited—geographically, economically,
This passage is adapted from John Bohannon, “Why You Shouldn’t Trust Internet Comments.” ©2013 by American Association for the Advancement of Science.
The “wisdom of crowds” has become a mantra of
the Internet age. Need to choose a new vacuum
cleaner? Check out the reviews on online merchant
lineAmazon. But a new study suggests that such online
5scores don’t always reveal the best choice. A massive
controlled experiment of Web users finds that such
ratings are highly susceptible to irrational “herd
behavior”—and that the herd can be manipulated.
Sometimes the crowd really is wiser than you. The
10classic examples are guessing the weight of a bull or
the number of gumballs in a jar. Your guess is
probably going to be far from the mark, whereas the
average of many people’s choices is remarkably close
to the true number.
15But what happens when the goal is to judge
something less tangible, such as the quality or worth
of a product? According to one theory, the wisdom
of the crowd still holds—measuring the aggregate of
people’s opinions produces a stable, reliable
20value. Skeptics, however, argue that people’s
opinions are easily swayed by those of others. So
nudging a crowd early on by presenting contrary
opinions—for example, exposing them to some very
good or very bad attitudes—will steer the crowd in a
25different direction. To test which hypothesis is true,
you would need to manipulate huge numbers of
people, exposing them to false information and
determining how it affects their opinions.
A team led by Sinan Aral, a network scientist at
30the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in
Cambridge, did exactly that. Aral has been secretly
working with a popular website that aggregates news
stories. The website allows users to make comments
about news stories and vote each other’s comments
35up or down. The vote tallies are visible as a number
next to each comment, and the position of the
comments is chronological. (Stories on the site get an
average of about ten comments and about three votes
per comment.) It’s a follow-up to his experiment
40using people’s ratings of movies to measure how
much individual people influence each other online
(answer: a lot). This time, he wanted to know how
much the crowd influences the individual, and
whether it can be controlled from outside.
45For five months, every comment submitted by a
user randomly received an “up” vote (positive); a
“down” vote (negative); or as a control, no vote at all.
The team then observed how users rated those
comments. The users generated more than
50100,000 comments that were viewed more than
10 million times and rated more than 300,000 times
by other users.
At least when it comes to comments on news
sites, the crowd is more herdlike than wise.
55Comments that received fake positive votes from the
researchers were 32% more likely to receive more
positive votes compared with a control, the team
reports. And those comments were no more likely
than the control to be down-voted by the next viewer
60to see them. By the end of the study, positively
manipulated comments got an overall boost of about
25%. However, the same did not hold true for
negative manipulation. The ratings of comments that
got a fake down vote were usually negated by an up
65vote by the next user to see them.
“Our experiment does not reveal the psychology
behind people’s decisions,” Aral says, “but an
intuitive explanation is that people are more
skeptical of negative social influence. They’re more
70willing to go along with positive opinions from other
Duncan Watts, a network scientist at Microsoft
Research in New York City, agrees with that
conclusion. “[But] one question is whether the
75positive [herding] bias is specific to this site” or true
in general, Watts says. He points out that the
category of the news items in the experiment had a
strong effect on how much people could be
manipulated. “I would have thought that ‘business’ is
80pretty similar to ‘economics,’ yet they find a much
stronger effect (almost 50% stronger) for the former
than the latter. What explains this difference? If we’re
going to apply these findings in the real world, we’ll
need to know the answers.”
85Will companies be able to boost their products by
manipulating online ratings on a massive scale?
“That is easier said than done,” Watts says. If people
detect—or learn—that comments on a website are
being manipulated, the herd may spook and leave
This passage is adapted from Joshua Foer, Moonwalking with Einstein: The Art and Science of Remembering Everything. ©2011 by Joshua Foer.
In 2000, a neuroscientist at University College
London named Eleanor Maguire wanted to find out
what effect, if any, all that driving around the
linelabyrinthine streets of London might have on
5cabbies’ brains. When she brought sixteen taxi
drivers into her lab and examined their brains in an
MRI scanner, she found one surprising and
important difference. The right posterior
hippocampus, a part of the brain known to be
10involved in spatial navigation, was 7 percent larger
than normal in the cabbies—a small but very
significant difference. Maguire concluded that all of
that way-finding around London had physically
altered the gross structure of their brains. The more
15years a cabbie had been on the road, the more
pronounced the effect.
The brain is a mutable organ, capable—within
limits—of reorganizing itself and readapting to new
kinds of sensory input, a phenomenon known as
20neuroplasticity. It had long been thought that the
adult brain was incapable of spawning new
neurons—that while learning caused synapses to
rearrange themselves and new links between brain
cells to form, the brain’s basic anatomical structure
25was more or less static. Maguire’s study suggested the
old inherited wisdom was simply not true.
After her groundbreaking study of London
cabbies, Maguire decided to turn her attention to
mental athletes. She teamed up with Elizabeth
30Valentine and John Wilding, authors of the academic
monograph Superior Memory, to study ten
individuals who had finished near the top of the
World Memory Championship. They wanted to find
out if the memorizers’ brains were—like the London
35cabbies’—structurally different from the rest of ours,
or if they were somehow just making better use of
memory abilities that we all possess.
The researchers put both the mental athletes and a
group of matched control subjects into MRI scanners
40and asked them to memorize three-digit numbers,
black-and-white photographs of people’s faces, and
magnified images of snowflakes, while their brains
were being scanned. Maguire and her team thought it
was possible that they might discover anatomical
45differences in the brains of the memory champs,
evidence that their brains had somehow reorganized
themselves in the process of doing all that intensive
remembering. But when the researchers reviewed the
imaging data, not a single significant structural
50difference turned up. The brains of the mental
athletes appeared to be indistinguishable from those
of the control subjects. What’s more, on every single
test of general cognitive ability, the mental athletes’
scores came back well within the normal range. The
55memory champs weren’t smarter, and they didn’t
have special brains.
But there was one telling difference between the
brains of the mental athletes and the control subjects:
When the researchers looked at which parts of the
60brain were lighting up when the mental athletes were
memorizing, they found that they were activating
entirely different circuitry. According to the
functional MRIs [fMRIs], regions of the brain that
were less active in the control subjects seemed to be
65working in overdrive for the mental athletes.
Surprisingly, when the mental athletes were
learning new information, they were engaging
several regions of the brain known to be involved in
two specific tasks: visual memory and spatial
70navigation, including the same right posterior
hippocampal region that the London cabbies had
enlarged with all their daily way-finding. At first
glance, this wouldn’t seem to make any sense.
Why would mental athletes be conjuring images in
75their mind’s eye when they were trying to learn
three-digit numbers? Why should they be navigating
like London cabbies when they’re supposed to be
remembering the shapes of snowflakes?
Maguire and her team asked the mental athletes
80to describe exactly what was going through their
minds as they memorized. The mental athletes said
they were consciously converting the information
they were being asked to memorize into images, and
distributing those images along familiar spatial
85journeys. They weren’t doing this automatically, or
because it was an inborn talent they’d nurtured since
childhood. Rather, the unexpected patterns of neural
activity that Maguire’s fMRIs turned up were the
result of training and practice.
35 MINUTES, 44 QUESTIONS
Each passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For some questions, you will consider how the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. For other questions, you will consider how the passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence structure, usage, or punctuation. A passage or a question may be accompanied by one or more graphics (such as a table or graph) that you will consider as you make revising and editing decisions.
Some questions will direct you to an underlined portion of a passage. Other questions will direct you to a location in a passage or ask you to think about the passage as a whole.
After reading each passage, choose the answer to each question that most effectively improves the quality of writing in the passage or that makes the passage conform to the conventions of standard written English. Many questions include a“NO CHANGE”option. Choose that option if you think the best choice is to leave the relevant portion of the passage as it is.
Paleontologists are using modern technology to gain a greater understanding of the distant past. With the aid of computed tomography (CT) scanning and 3-D printing, researchers are able to create accurate models of prehistoric fossils. 1 These models have expanded researchers’ knowledge of ancient species and 2 swear to advance the field of paleontology in the years to come.
CT scanners use X-rays to map the surface of a fossil in minute detail, recording as many as one million data points to create a digital blueprint. A 3-D printer then builds a polymer model based on this blueprint, much as a regular computer printer reproduces digital documents on paper. 3 Whereas the head of an ordinary computer printer moves back and forth while printing ink onto paper, the corresponding part of a 3-D printer moves in multiple dimensions while squirting out thin layers of melted polymer plastic. The plastic hardens quickly, 4 it allows the printer to build the layers of the final model. Compared with older ways of modeling fossils, scanning and printing in this way is extremely versatile.
 One significant benefit of 3-D printing technology is its ability to create scale reproductions of fossils.  But now 3-D scale models can be rearranged with ease, which is a huge boon to scientists.  A team led by Drexel University professor Kenneth Lacovara is making models of dinosaur bones one-tenth the bones’ original sizes 5 in order to learn how they fit together when the animals were alive.  In the past, such research was limited by the weight and bulk of the fossils as well as 6 its preciousness and fragility.  In many cases, scientists had to rearrange bones virtually, using artists’ renderings. 7
Because CT scanners can map objects that are impossible to excavate, CT scanning and 3-D printing can also be used to reproduce fossils that scientists cannot observe firsthand. 8 By contrast, researchers from the National Museum of Brazil 9 has relied on this technique to study a fossilized skeleton that was discovered protruding from a rock at an old São Paulo railroad site. 10 The fossil was too delicate to be removed from the rock. Because of the fossil’s delicate nature, the team dug up a block of stone around the fossil and brought it to their lab. With the aid of a CT scanner and a 3-D printer, they were able to produce a resin model of the fossil. Examining the model, the researchers determined that 11 one had found a new species, a 75-million-year-old crocodile. While not every discovery will be as dramatic as this one, paleontologists anticipate further expanding their knowledge of ancient life-forms as CT scanning and 3-D printing continue to make fossils more accessible.
“Stop them pictures!” Legend has it that the corrupt politician William “Boss” Tweed once used those words when ordering someone to offer a bribe to Thomas Nast, an artist who had become famous for cartoons that called for reforms to end corruption. 12 As a result, Tweed’s attempt to silence the artist failed, and Nast’s cartoons, published in magazines like Harper’s Weekly, actually played a key role in bringing Boss Tweed and his cronies to justice.
13 There were powerful political organizations in the 1860s and the 1870s. The organizations were known as “political machines” and started taking control of city governments. These political machines were able to pack legislatures and courts with hand-picked supporters by purchasing 14 votes, a form of election fraud involving the exchange of money or favors for votes. Once a political machine had control of enough important positions, its members were able to use public funds to enrich themselves and their friends. Boss Tweed’s Tammany Hall group, which controlled New York 15 City in the 1860s—stole more than $30 million,the equivalent of more than $365 million today. 16 Tweed had been elected to a single two-year term in Congress in 1852. Tammany Hall was so powerful and 17 corrupt that, the New York Times, commented “There is absolutely nothing . . . in the city which is beyond the reach of the insatiable gang.”
Given the extent of Tweed’s power, it is remarkable that a single cartoonist could have played such a significant role in bringing about his downfall. Nast’s cartoons depicted Tweed as a great big bloated thief. One of the artist’s most 18 famous images showed Tweed with a bag of money in place of his 19 head. Another featured Tweed leaning against a ballot box with the caption “As long as I count the votes, what are you going to do about it?” These cartoons were so effective in part because many of the citizens who supported Tweed were illiterate and thus could not read the newspaper accounts of his criminal activities. Nast’s cartoons, though, widely exposed the public to the injustice of Tweed’s political machine.
Nast’s campaign to bring down Tweed and the Tammany Hall gang was ultimately successful. In the elections of 1871, the public voted against most of the Tammany Hall candidates, greatly weakening Tweed’s power. Eventually, Tweed and his gang were 20 persecuted for a number of charges, including fraud and larceny, and many of them were sent to jail. In 1875 Tweed escaped from jail and fled to Spain and unwittingly 21 brought about one final 22 pinnacle for the power of political cartoons: A Spanish police officer recognized Tweed from one of Nast’s cartoons. Consequently, Tweed was sent back to jail, and Nast was hailed as the man who toppled the great Tammany Hall machine.
Crowdfunding is a popular way to raise money using the Internet. The process sounds simple: an artist, entrepreneur, or other innovator takes his or her ideas straight to the public via a crowdfunding website. The innovator creates a video about the project and offers, in exchange for donations, a series of “perks,” from acknowledgment on a social media site to a small piece of art. Many crowdfunding programs are all-or-nothing; in other words, the innovator must garner 100 percent funding for the project or the money is refunded to the donors. At 23 it’s best, the system can give creators direct access to millions of potential backers.
The home page of one leading crowdfunding site features a project to manufacture pinhole cameras on a 3!D printer. 24 The idea is obviously very attractive. An obscure method of photography may be made available to many with little expense. Within weeks, the project was 621 percent funded. In contrast, on the same page, a small Brooklyn performance venue is attempting to raise money for its current season. The venue features works of performance art showcased in a storefront window. Those who have seen the space consider it vital. 25 However, that group may not be large enough; with just fourteen days to go in the fund-raising period, the campaign is only 46 percent funded.
Artists such as these Brooklyn performers find that crowdfunding exacerbates problems that already exist. 26 Work, that is easily understood and appreciated, is supported, while more complex work goes unnoticed. 27 Time that could be used creating art is spent devising clever perks to draw the attention of potential contributors. 28 In addition, audiences may contain many “free 29 riders,” they did not make contributions.Ironically, the success of crowdfunding may weaken overall funding for the arts if people begin to feel that paying for the art 30 loved by them is someone else’s responsibility.
 One innovative playwright has woven the deficiencies of the system into her crowdfunding model.  Though the price for her tickets was higher than that of tickets for comparable shows, it was still affordable to most theatergoers—and reflected the real cost of the performance.  She presented the total cost for producing her play on a crowdfunding site.  Then she divided the total cost by the number of people she expected to attend the performance.  The result of the calculation was the minimum donor price, and only donors who paid at least the minimum ticket price were allowed to attend the performance.  By subverting the presumption that money used for her project is an altruistic donation, the playwright showed that 31 our work has monetary value to those who enjoy it. 32
Question 33 asks about the graphic
 The recent precipitous decline of print journalism as a viable profession has exacerbated long-held concerns about the state of investigative reporting in the United States.  Facing lower print circulation and diminished advertising revenue, many major newspapers have reduced or eliminated investigative resources.  Newspapers, the traditional nurturing ground for investigative journalism, have been hit especially hard by the widespread availability of free news online.  To survive, investigative journalism must continue to adapt to the digital age. 34
It is not difficult to understand why a cash-strapped, understaffed publication might feel pressure to cut teams of investigative 35 reporter’s—their work is expensive and time-consuming. 36 Taking on the public interest, investigative journalism involves original, often long-form reporting on such topics as 37 illegal activities, street crime, corporate wrongdoing, and political corruption. An investigative story involves one or more experienced journalists dedicating their full energy and the resources of the publisher to a piece for a prolonged period of time. Expensive legal battles may ensue. The results of this work, though costly, have helped keep those in power accountable. The exposure by Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein of government misconduct in the Watergate scandal resulted in the resignation of President Richard Nixon in 1974. More recently, Seymour Hersh, reporting for the New Yorker in 2004, helped publicize the mistreatment of Iraqi prisoners by US personnel at Abu Ghraib during the Iraq War. 38 In these and other cases, exposure from reporters has served as an important 39 blockade to or scolding of malfeasance.
While worrisome, the decline of traditional print media 40 could not entail the end of investigative journalism. 41 Although many newsrooms have reduced their staff, some still employ investigative reporters. Nonprofit 42 enterprises such as the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project have begun to fill the void created by staff losses at newspapers and magazines. Enterprising freelance reporters, newly funded by nonprofits, make extensive use of social media,including blogs and Twitter, to foster a public conversation about key issues. The Help Me Investigate project, 43 for example, solicited readers to submit tips and information related to ongoing stories to its website. Far from marking the end of investigative journalism, 44 cooperation among journalists and ordinary citizens has been facilitated by the advent of the digital age through an increase in the number of potential investigators.