65 MINUTES, 52 QUESTIONS
Each passage or pair of passages below is followed by a number of questions. After reading each passage or pair, choose the best answer to each question based on what is stated or implied in the passage or passages and in any accompanying graphics (such as a table or graph).
This passage is adapted from Daniyal Mueenuddin, “Nawabdin Electrician.” ©2009 by Daniyal Mueenuddin.
Another man might have thrown up his
hands—but not Nawabdin. His twelve daughters
acted as a spur to his genius, and he looked with
linesatisfaction in the mirror each morning at the face of
5a warrior going out to do battle. Nawab of course
knew that he must proliferate his sources of
revenue—the salary he received from K. K. Harouni
for tending the tube wells would not even begin to
suffice. He set up a little one-room flour mill, run off
10a condemned electric motor—condemned by him.
He tried his hand at fish-farming in a little pond at
the edge of his master’s fields. He bought broken
radios, fixed them, and resold them. He did not
demur even when asked to fix watches, though that
15enterprise did spectacularly badly, and in fact earned
him more kicks than kudos, for no watch he took
apart ever kept time again.
K. K. Harouni rarely went to his farms, but lived
mostly in Lahore. Whenever the old man visited,
20Nawab would place himself night and day at the door
leading from the servants’ sitting area into the walled
grove of ancient banyan trees where the old
farmhouse stood. Grizzled, his peculiar aviator
glasses bent and smudged, Nawab tended the
25household machinery, the air conditioners, water
heaters, refrigerators, and water pumps, like an
engineer tending the boilers on a foundering steamer
in an Atlantic gale. By his superhuman efforts he
almost managed to maintain K. K. Harouni in the
30same mechanical cocoon, cooled and bathed and
lighted and fed, that the landowner enjoyed in
Harouni of course became familiar with this
ubiquitous man, who not only accompanied him on
35his tours of inspection, but morning and night could
be found standing on the master bed rewiring the
light fixture or in the bathroom poking at the water
heater. Finally, one evening at teatime, gauging the
psychological moment, Nawab asked if he might say
40a word. The landowner, who was cheerfully filing his
nails in front of a crackling rosewood fire, told him
to go ahead.
“Sir, as you know, your lands stretch from here to
the Indus, and on these lands are fully seventeen tube
45wells, and to tend these seventeen tube wells there is
but one man, me, your servant. In your service I have
earned these gray hairs”—here he bowed his head to
show the gray—“and now I cannot fulfill my duties
as I should. Enough, sir, enough. I beg you, forgive
50me my weakness. Better a darkened house and proud
hunger within than disgrace in the light of day.
Release me, I ask you, I beg you.”
The old man, well accustomed to these sorts of
speeches, though not usually this florid, filed away at
55his nails and waited for the breeze to stop.
“What’s the matter, Nawabdin?”
“Matter, sir? O what could be the matter in your
service. I’ve eaten your salt for all my years. But sir,
on the bicycle now, with my old legs, and with the
60many injuries I’ve received when heavy machinery
fell on me—I cannot any longer bicycle about like a
bridegroom from farm to farm, as I could when I
first had the good fortune to enter your employment.
I beg you, sir, let me go.”
65“And what’s the solution?” asked Harouni, seeing
that they had come to the crux. He didn’t particularly
care one way or the other, except that it touched on
his comfort—a matter of great interest to him.
“Well, sir, if I had a motorcycle, then I could
70somehow limp along, at least until I train up some
The crops that year had been good, Harouni felt
expansive in front of the fire, and so, much to the
disgust of the farm managers, Nawab received a
75brand-new motorcycle, a Honda 70. He even
managed to extract an allowance for gasoline.
The motorcycle increased his status, gave him
weight, so that people began calling him “Uncle,” and
asking his opinion on world affairs, about which he
80knew absolutely nothing. He could now range
further, doing a much wider business. Best of all,
now he could spend every night with his wife, who
had begged to live not on the farm but near her
family in Firoza, where also they could educate at
85least the two eldest daughters. A long straight road
ran from the canal headworks near Firoza all the way
to the Indus, through the heart of the K. K. Harouni
lands. Nawab would fly down this road on his new
machine, with bags and cloths hanging from every
90knob and brace, so that the bike, when he hit a bump,
seemed to be flapping numerous small vestigial
wings; and with his grinning face, as he rolled up to
whichever tube well needed servicing, with his ears
almost blown off, he shone with the speed of his
This passage is adapted from Stephen Coleman, Scott Anthony, and David E. Morrison, “Public Trust in the News.” ©2009 by Stephen Coleman.
The news is a form of public knowledge.
Unlike personal or private knowledge (such as the
health of one’s friends and family; the conduct of a
lineprivate hobby; a secret liaison), public knowledge
5increases in value as it is shared by more people. The
date of an election and the claims of rival candidates;
the causes and consequences of an environmental
disaster; a debate about how to frame a particular
law; the latest reports from a war zone—these are all
10examples of public knowledge that people are
generally expected to know in order to be considered
informed citizens. Thus, in contrast to personal or
private knowledge, which is generally left to
individuals to pursue or ignore, public knowledge is
15promoted even to those who might not think it
matters to them. In short, the circulation of public
knowledge, including the news, is generally regarded
as a public good which cannot be solely
20The production, circulation, and reception
of public knowledge is a complex process. It is
generally accepted that public knowledge should
be authoritative, but there is not always
common agreement about what the public needs to
25know, who is best placed to relate and explain it, and
how authoritative reputations should be determined
and evaluated. Historically, newspapers such as The
Times and broadcasters such as the BBC were widely
regarded as the trusted shapers of authoritative
30agendas and conventional wisdom. They embodied
the Oxford English Dictionary’s definition of
authority as the “power over, or title to influence, the
opinions of others.” As part of the general process of
the transformation of authority whereby there has
35been a reluctance to uncritically accept traditional
sources of public knowledge, the demand has been
for all authority to make explicit the frames of value
which determine their decisions. Centres of news
production, as our focus groups show, have not been
40exempt from this process. Not surprisingly perhaps
some news journalists feel uneasy about this
renegotiation of their authority:
Editors are increasingly casting a glance at the
“most read” lists on their own and other websites
45to work out which stories matter to readers and
viewers. And now the audience—which used to
know its place—is being asked to act as a kind of
journalistic ombudsman, ruling on our
credibility (broadcast journalist, 2008).
50The result of democratising access to TV news
could be political disengagement by the majority
and a dumbing down through a popularity
contest of stories (online news editor, 2007).
Despite the rhetorical bluster of these statements,
55they amount to more than straightforward
professional defensiveness. In their reference to an
audience “which used to know its place” and
conflation between democratisation and “dumbing
down,” they are seeking to argue for a particular
60mode of public knowledge: one which is shaped by
experts, immune from populist pressures; and
disseminated to attentive, but mainly passive
recipients. It is a view of citizenship that closes down
opportunities for popular involvement in the making
65of public knowledge by reinforcing the professional
claims of experts. The journalists quoted above are
right to feel uneasy, for there is, at almost every
institutional level in contemporary society,
scepticism towards the epistemological authority of
70expert elites. There is a growing feeling, as expressed
by several of our focus group participants, that the
news media should be “informative rather than
authoritative”; the job of journalists should be to
“give the news as raw as it is, without putting their
75slant on it”; and people should be given “sufficient
information” from which “we would be able to form
opinions of our own.”
At stake here are two distinct conceptions of
authority. The journalists we have quoted are
80resistant to the democratisation of news:
the supremacy of the clickstream (according to
which editors raise or lower the profile of stories
according to the number of readers clicking on them
online); the parity of popular culture with “serious”
85news; the demands of some audience members for
raw news rather than constructed narratives.
This passage is adapted from Elsa Youngsteadt, “Decoding a Flower’s Message.” ©2012 by Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society.
Texas gourd vines unfurl their large, flared
blossoms in the dim hours before sunrise. Until they
close at noon, their yellow petals and mild, squashy
linearoma attract bees that gather nectar and shuttle
5pollen from flower to flower. But “when you
advertise [to pollinators], you advertise in an
open communication network,” says chemical
ecologist Ian Baldwin of the Max Planck Institute for
Chemical Ecology in Germany. “You attract not just
10the good guys, but you also attract the bad guys.” For
a Texas gourd plant, striped cucumber beetles are
among the very bad guys. They chew up pollen and
petals, defecate in the flowers and transmit the
dreaded bacterial wilt disease, an infection that can
15reduce an entire plant to a heap of collapsed tissue in
In one recent study, Nina Theis and Lynn Adler
took on the specific problem of the Texas
gourd—how to attract enough pollinators but not
20too many beetles. The Texas gourd vine’s main
pollinators are honey bees and specialized squash
bees, which respond to its floral scent. The aroma
includes 10 compounds, but the most
abundant—and the only one that lures squash bees
25into traps—is 1,4-dimethoxybenzene.
Intuition suggests that more of that aroma should
be even more appealing to bees. “We have this
assumption that a really fragrant flower is going to
attract a lot of pollinators,” says Theis, a chemical
30ecologist at Elms College in Chicopee,
Massachusetts. But, she adds, that idea hasn’t really
been tested—and extra scent could well call in more
beetles, too. To find out, she and Adler planted
168 Texas gourd vines in an Iowa field and,
35throughout the August flowering season, made half
the plants more fragrant by tucking
dimethoxybenzene-treated swabs deep inside their
flowers. Each treated flower emitted about 45 times
more fragrance than a normal one; the other half of
40the plants got swabs without fragrance.
The researchers also wanted to know whether
extra beetles would impose a double cost by both
damaging flowers and deterring bees, which might
not bother to visit (and pollinate) a flower laden with
45other insects and their feces. So every half hour
throughout the experiments, the team plucked all the
beetles off of half the fragrance-enhanced flowers and
half the control flowers, allowing bees to respond to
the blossoms with and without interference by
Finally, they pollinated by hand half of the female
flowers in each of the four combinations of fragrance
and beetles. Hand-pollinated flowers should develop
into fruits with the maximum number of seeds,
55providing a benchmark to see whether the
fragrance-related activities of bees and beetles
resulted in reduced pollination.
“It was very labor intensive,” says Theis.
“We would be out there at four in the morning, three
60in the morning, to try and set up before these flowers
open.” As soon as they did, the team spent the next
several hours walking from flower to flower,
observing each for two-minute intervals “and writing
down everything we saw.”
65What they saw was double the normal number of
beetles on fragrance-enhanced blossoms.
Pollinators, to their surprise, did not prefer the
highly scented flowers. Squash bees were indifferent,
and honey bees visited enhanced flowers less often
70than normal ones. Theis thinks the bees were
repelled not by the fragrance itself, but by the
abundance of beetles: The data showed that the more
beetles on a flower, the less likely a honey bee was to
75That added up to less reproduction for
fragrance-enhanced flowers. Gourds that developed
from those blossoms weighed 9 percent less and had,
on average, 20 fewer seeds than those from normal
flowers. Hand pollination didn’t rescue the seed set,
80indicating that beetles damaged flowers directly
—regardless of whether they also repelled
pollinators. (Hand pollination did rescue fruit
weight, a hard-to-interpret result that suggests that
lost bee visits did somehow harm fruit development.)
85The new results provide a reason that Texas gourd
plants never evolved to produce a stronger scent: “If
you really ramp up the odor, you don’t get more
pollinators, but you can really get ripped apart by
your enemies,” says Rob Raguso, a chemical ecologist
90at Cornell University who was not involved in the
Texas gourd study.
Passage 1 is adapted from Abraham Lincoln, “Address to the Young Men’s Lyceum of Springfield, Illinois.” Originally delivered in 1838. Passage 2 is from Henry David Thoreau, “Resistance to Civil Government.” Originally published in 1849.
Let every American, every lover of liberty, every
well wisher to his posterity, swear by the blood of the
Revolution, never to violate in the least particular,
linethe laws of the country; and never to tolerate their
5violation by others. As the patriots of seventy-six did
to the support of the Declaration of Independence, so
to the support of the Constitution and Laws, let every
American pledge his life, his property, and his sacred
honor;—let every man remember that to violate the
10law, is to trample on the blood of his father, and to
tear the character of his own, and his children’s
liberty. Let reverence for the laws, be breathed by
every American mother, to the lisping babe, that
prattles on her lap—let it be taught in schools, in
15seminaries, and in colleges;—let it be written in
Primers, spelling books, and in Almanacs;—let it be
preached from the pulpit, proclaimed in legislative
halls, and enforced in courts of justice. And, in short,
let it become the political religion of the nation;
20and let the old and the young, the rich and the poor,
the grave and the gay, of all sexes and tongues, and
colors and conditions, sacrifice unceasingly upon its
altars. . . .
When I so pressingly urge a strict observance of
25all the laws, let me not be understood as saying there
are no bad laws, nor that grievances may not arise,
for the redress of which, no legal provisions have
been made. I mean to say no such thing. But I do
mean to say, that, although bad laws, if they exist,
30should be repealed as soon as possible, still while they
continue in force, for the sake of example, they
should be religiously observed. So also in unprovided
cases. If such arise, let proper legal provisions be
made for them with the least possible delay; but, till
35then, let them if not too intolerable, be borne with.
There is no grievance that is a fit object of redress
by mob law. In any case that arises, as for instance,
the promulgation of abolitionism, one of two
positions is necessarily true; that is, the thing is right
40within itself, and therefore deserves the protection of
all law and all good citizens; or, it is wrong, and
therefore proper to be prohibited by legal
enactments; and in neither case, is the interposition
of mob law, either necessary, justifiable, or excusable.
45Unjust laws exist; shall we be content to obey
them, or shall we endeavor to amend them, and obey
them until we have succeeded, or shall we transgress
them at once? Men generally, under such a
government as this, think that they ought to wait
50until they have persuaded the majority to alter them.
They think that, if they should resist, the remedy
would be worse than the evil. But it is the fault of the
government itself that the remedy is worse than the
evil. It makes it worse. Why is it not more apt to
55anticipate and provide for reform? Why does it not
cherish its wise minority? Why does it cry and resist
before it is hurt? . . .
If the injustice is part of the necessary friction of
the machine of government, let it go, let it go;
60perchance it will wear smooth—certainly the
machine will wear out. If the injustice has a spring, or
a pulley, or a rope, or a crank, exclusively for itself,
then perhaps you may consider whether the remedy
will not be worse than the evil; but if it is of such a
65nature that it requires you to be the agent of injustice
to another, then, I say, break the law. Let your life be
a counter friction to stop the machine. What I have
to do is to see, at any rate, that I do not lend myself to
the wrong which I condemn.
70As for adopting the ways which the State has
provided for remedying the evil, I know not of such
ways. They take too much time, and a man’s life will
be gone. I have other affairs to attend to. I came into
this world, not chiefly to make this a good place to
75live in, but to live in it, be it good or bad. A man has
not everything to do, but something; and because he
cannot do everything, it is not necessary that he
should do something wrong. . . .
I do not hesitate to say, that those who call
80themselves Abolitionists should at once effectually
withdraw their support, both in person and property,
from the government . . . and not wait till they
constitute a majority of one, before they suffer the
right to prevail through them. I think that it is
85enough if they have God on their side, without
waiting for that other one. Moreover, any man more
right than his neighbors constitutes a majority of one
This passage is adapted from Kevin Bullis, “What Tech Is Next for the Solar Industry?” ©2013 by MIT Technology Review.
Solar panel installations continue to grow quickly,
but the solar panel manufacturing industry is in the
doldrums because supply far exceeds demand. The
linepoor market may be slowing innovation, but
5advances continue; judging by the mood this week at
the IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference in
Tampa, Florida, people in the industry remain
optimistic about its long-term prospects.
The technology that’s surprised almost everyone
10is conventional crystalline silicon. A few years ago,
silicon solar panels cost $4 per watt, and
Martin Green, professor at the University of
New South Wales and one of the leading silicon solar
panel researchers, declared that they’d never go
15below $1 a watt. “Now it’s down to something like
50 cents a watt, and there’s talk of hitting 36 cents per
watt,” he says.
The U.S. Department of Energy has set a goal of
reaching less than $1 a watt—not just for the solar
20panels, but for complete, installed systems—by 2020.
Green thinks the solar industry will hit that target
even sooner than that. If so, that would bring the
direct cost of solar power to six cents per
kilowatt-hour, which is cheaper than the average cost
25expected for power from new natural gas power
All parts of the silicon solar panel industry have
been looking for ways to cut costs and improve the
power output of solar panels, and that’s led to steady
30cost reductions. Green points to something as
mundane as the pastes used to screen-print some of
the features on solar panels. Green’s lab built a solar
cell in the 1990s that set a record efficiency for silicon
solar cells—a record that stands to this day. To
35achieve that record, he had to use expensive
lithography techniques to make fine wires for
collecting current from the solar cell. But gradual
improvements have made it possible to use screen
printing to produce ever-finer lines. Recent research
40suggests that screen-printing techniques can produce
lines as thin as 30 micrometers—about the width of
the lines Green used for his record solar cells, but at
costs far lower than his lithography techniques.
Meanwhile, researchers at the National Renewable
45Energy Laboratory have made flexible solar cells on a
new type of glass from Corning called Willow Glass,
which is thin and can be rolled up. The type of solar
cell they made is the only current challenger to
silicon in terms of large-scale production—thin-film
50cadmium telluride. Flexible solar cells could lower
the cost of installing solar cells, making solar power
One of Green’s former students and colleagues,
Jianhua Zhao, cofounder of solar panel manufacturer
55China Sunergy, announced this week that he is
building a pilot manufacturing line for a two-sided
solar cell that can absorb light from both the front
and back. The basic idea, which isn’t new, is that
during some parts of the day, sunlight falls on the
60land between rows of solar panels in a solar power
plant. That light reflects onto the back of the panels
and could be harvested to increase the power output.
This works particularly well when the solar panels
are built on sand, which is highly reflective. Where a
65one-sided solar panel might generate 340 watts, a
two-sided one might generate up to 400 watts. He
expects the panels to generate 10 to 20 percent more
electricity over the course of a year.
Even longer-term, Green is betting on silicon,
70aiming to take advantage of the huge reductions in
cost already seen with the technology. He hopes to
greatly increase the efficiency of silicon solar panels
by combining silicon with one or two other
semiconductors, each selected to efficiently convert a
75part of the solar spectrum that silicon doesn’t convert
efficiently. Adding one semiconductor could boost
efficiencies from the 20 to 25 percent range to
around 40 percent. Adding another could make
efficiencies as high as 50 percent feasible, which
80would cut in half the number of solar panels needed
for a given installation. The challenge is to produce
good connections between these semiconductors,
something made challenging by the arrangement of
silicon atoms in crystalline silicon.
35 MINUTES, 44 QUESTIONS
Each passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For some questions, you will consider how the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. For other questions, you will consider how the passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence structure, usage, or punctuation. A passage or a question may be accompanied by one or more graphics (such as a table or graph) that you will consider as you make revising and editing decisions.
Some questions will direct you to an underlined portion of a passage. Other questions will direct you to a location in a passage or ask you to think about the passage as a whole.
After reading each passage, choose the answer to each question that most effectively improves the quality of writing in the passage or that makes the passage conform to the conventions of standard written English. Many questions include a“NO CHANGE”option. Choose that option if you think the best choice is to leave the relevant portion of the passage as it is.
In the winter of 1968, scientists David Schindler and Gregg Brunskill poured nitrates and phosphates into Lake 1 227, this is one of the 58 freshwater bodies that compose Canada’s remotely located Experimental Lakes Area. Schindler and Brunskill were contaminating the water not out of malice but in the name of research. While deliberately adding chemical compounds to a lake may seem 2 destructive and irresponsible, this method of experimenting is sometimes the most effective way to influence policy and save the environment from even more damaging pollution.
Schindler and Brunskill were investigating possible causes for the large blooms of blue-green algae, or cyanobacteria, that had been affecting bodies of water such as Lake Erie. 3 In addition to being unsightly and odorous, these algal blooms cause oxygen depletion. Oxygen depletion kills fish and other wildlife in the lakes. Just weeks after the scientists added the nitrates and phosphates, the water in Lake 227 turned bright 4 green. It was thick with: the same type of algal blooms that had plagued Lake Erie.
5 One mission of the Experimental Lakes Area is to conduct research that helps people better understand threats to the environment. The scientists divided the lake in half by placing a nylon barrier through the narrowest part of its figure-eight shape. In one half of Lake 226, they added phosphates, nitrates, and a source of carbon; in the other, they added just nitrates 6 and a source of carbon was added. Schindler and Brunskill hypothesized that phosphates were responsible for the growth of cyanobacteria. The experiment confirmed their suspicions when the half of the lake containing the phosphates 7 was teeming with blue-green algae.
Schindler and Brunskill’s findings were 7 shown off by the journal Science. The research demonstrated a clear correlation between introducing phosphates and the growth of blue-green algae. 8 For example, legislators in Canada passed laws banning phosphates in laundry detergents, which had been entering the water supply. 10
Experiments like these can help people understand the unintended consequences of using certain household products. 111 Of course, regulating the use of certain chemical compounds can be a controversial issue. Selectively establishing remote study locations, such as the Experimental Lakes Area, can provide scientists with opportunities to safely conduct controlled research. This research can generate evidence solid enough to persuade policy makers to take action in favor of protecting the larger environment.
Italy’s Tower of Pisa has been leaning southward since the initial 12 stages of it’s construction over 800 years ago. 13 Indeed, if the tower’s construction had not taken two centuries and involved significant breaks due to war and civil unrest, which allowed the ground beneath the tower to settle, the tower would likely have collapsed before it was completed.
Luckily, the tower survived, and its tilt has made it an Italian 14 icon, it attracts visitors from all over who flock to Pisa to see one of the greatest architectural 15 weirdnesses in the world. 16 By the late twentieth century, the angle of the tower’s tilt had reached an astonishing 5.5 degrees; in 17 1990, Italy’s government closed the tower to visitors and appointed a committee to find a way to save it.
The committee was charged with saving the tower without ruining its aesthetic, 18 which no one had yet managed to achieve. The committee’s first attempt to reduce the angle of the tower’s tilt—placing 600 tons of iron ingots (molded pieces of metal) on the tower’s north side to create a counterweight—was derided because the bulky weights ruined the tower’s appearance. The attempt at a less visible solution—sinking anchors into the ground below the tower—almost caused the tower to fall.
 Enter committee member John Burland, 19 he is a geotechnical engineer from England who saved London’s clock tower Big Ben from collapse.  Burland began a years-long process of drilling out small amounts of soil from under the tower 20 that took several years to complete and then monitoring the tower’s resulting movement.  Twice daily, Burland evaluated these movements and made recommendations as to how much soil should be removed in the next drilling.  By 2001, almost 77 tons of soil had been removed, and the tower’s tilt had decreased by over 1.5 degrees; the ugly iron weights were removed, and the tower was reopened to visitors.  Burland 21 advocated using soil extraction: removing small amounts of soil from under the tower’s north side, opposite its tilt, to enable gravity to straighten the tower. 22
The tower’s tilt has not increased since, and the committee is confident that the tower will be safe for another 200 years. Burland is now working on a more permanent solution for keeping the tower upright, but he is adamant that the tower never be completely straightened. In an interview with PBS’s Nova, Burland explained that it is very important “that we don’t really change the character of the monument. That would be quite wrong and quite inappropriate.”
23 The term “paramedics” refers to health care workers who provide routine and clinical services. While the pressures of an aging population, insurance reforms, and health epidemics have increased demand for care, the supply of physicians is not expected to 24 keep pace. The Association of American Medical Colleges predicts a shortage of over 90,000 physicians by 2020; by 2025, that number could climb to more than 130,000. In some parts of the country, shortages are already a sad fact of life. A 2009 report by the Bureau of Health Professions notes that although a fifth of the US population lives in rural areas, less than a tenth of US physicians serves that population. Because a traditionalist response to the crisis— 25 amping up medical-college enrollments and expanding physician training programs—is too slow and costly to address the near-term problem, alternatives are being explored. One promising avenue has been greater reliance on physician assistants (PAs).
26 By virtue of 27 there medical training, PAs can perform many of the jobs traditionally done by doctors, including treating chronic and acute conditions, performing minor 28 surgeries: and prescribing some medications. However, although well 29 compensated earning in 2012 a median annual salary of $90,930, PAs cost health care providers less than do the physicians who might otherwise undertake these tasks. Moreover, the training period for PAs is markedly shorter than 30 those for physicians—two to three years versus the seven to eleven required for physicians.
Physician assistants already offer vital primary care in many locations. Some 90,000 PAs were employed nationwide in 2012. Over and above their value in partially compensating for the general physician shortage has been their extraordinary contribution to rural health care. A recent review of the scholarly literature by Texas researchers found that PAs lend cost-efficient, widely appreciated services in underserved areas. 31 In addition, rural-based PAs often provide a broader spectrum of such services than do their urban and suburban counterparts, possibly as a consequence of the limited pool of rural-based physicians.
Increasingly, PAs and other such medical practitioners have become a critical complement to physicians. A 2013 RAND Corporation report estimates that while the number of primary care physicians will increase slowly from 2010 to 2025, the number of physician assistants and nurse-practitioners in primary care will grow at much faster rates. 32 Both by merit and from necessity, PAs are likely to greet more 33 patience than ever before.
34 Popular film franchises are often “rebooted” in an effort to make their characters and stories fresh and relevant for new audiences. Superhero comic books are periodically reworked to try to increase their appeal to contemporary readers. This practice is almost as 35 elderly as the medium itself and has in large part established the “ages” that compose comic book history. The shift from the Golden to the Silver Age is probably the most successful 36 example: of publishers responding to changing times and tastes.
The start of the first (“Golden”) age of comic books is often dated to 1938 with the debut of Superman in Action Comics #1. Besides beginning the age, Superman in many respects defined it, becoming the model on which many later superheroes were based. His characterization, as established in Superman #1 (1939), was relatively simple. He could “hurdle skyscrapers” and “leap an eighth of a mile”; “run faster than a streamline train”; withstand anything less than a “bursting shell”; and 37 lift a car over his head. Sent to Earth from the “doomed planet” Krypton, he was raised by human foster parents, whose love helped infuse him with an unapologetic desire to “benefit mankind.” Admirable but aloof, the Golden Age Superman was arguably more paragon than character, a problem only partially solved by giving him a human alter ego. Other Golden Age superheroes were similarly archetypal: Batman was a crime-fighting millionaire, Wonder Woman a warrior princess from a mythical island.
By contrast, the second (“Silver”) age of comics was marked by characters that, though somewhat simplistic by today’s standards, 38 were provided with origin stories often involving scientific experiments gone wrong. In addition to super villains, the new, soon-to-be-iconic characters of the 39 age: Spider-Man, the Fantastic Four, and the Hulk among them—had to cope with mundane, real-life problems, including paying the rent, dealing with family squabbles, and facing anger, loneliness, and ostracism. Their interior lives were richer and their motivations more complex. Although sales remained strong for Golden Age stalwarts Superman and, to a lesser extent, Batman, 40 subsequent decades would show the enduring appeal of these characters.
More transformations would take place in the medium as the Silver Age gave way to the Bronze and Modern (and possibly Postmodern) Ages. Such efforts 41 have yielded diminishing returns, as even the complete relaunch of DC 42 Comics’ superhero’s, line in 2011 has failed to arrest the steep two-decade decline of comic book sales. For both commercial and, arguably, creative reasons, 43 then, no transition was more successful than 44 those from the Golden to Silver Age.