Reading Test



Each passage or pair of passages below is followed by a number of questions. After reading each passage or pair, choose the best answer to each question based on what is stated or implied in the passage or passages and in any accompanying graphics (such as a table or graph).

Questions 1-10 are based on the following passage

This passage is adapted from Daniyal Mueenuddin, “Nawabdin Electrician.” ©2009 by Daniyal Mueenuddin.

Another man might have thrown up his

hands—but not Nawabdin. His twelve daughters

acted as a spur to his genius, and he looked with

linesatisfaction in the mirror each morning at the face of

5a warrior going out to do battle. Nawab of course

knew that he must proliferate his sources of

revenue—the salary he received from K. K. Harouni

for tending the tube wells would not even begin to

suffice. He set up a little one-room flour mill, run off

10a condemned electric motor—condemned by him.

He tried his hand at fish-farming in a little pond at

the edge of his master’s fields. He bought broken

radios, fixed them, and resold them. He did not

demur even when asked to fix watches, though that

15enterprise did spectacularly badly, and in fact earned

him more kicks than kudos, for no watch he took

apart ever kept time again.

K. K. Harouni rarely went to his farms, but lived

mostly in Lahore. Whenever the old man visited,

20Nawab would place himself night and day at the door

leading from the servants’ sitting area into the walled

grove of ancient banyan trees where the old

farmhouse stood. Grizzled, his peculiar aviator

glasses bent and smudged, Nawab tended the

25household machinery, the air conditioners, water

heaters, refrigerators, and water pumps, like an

engineer tending the boilers on a foundering steamer

in an Atlantic gale. By his superhuman efforts he

almost managed to maintain K. K. Harouni in the

30same mechanical cocoon, cooled and bathed and

lighted and fed, that the landowner enjoyed in


Harouni of course became familiar with this

ubiquitous man, who not only accompanied him on

35his tours of inspection, but morning and night could

be found standing on the master bed rewiring the

light fixture or in the bathroom poking at the water

heater. Finally, one evening at teatime, gauging the

psychological moment, Nawab asked if he might say

40a word. The landowner, who was cheerfully filing his

nails in front of a crackling rosewood fire, told him

to go ahead.

“Sir, as you know, your lands stretch from here to

the Indus, and on these lands are fully seventeen tube

45wells, and to tend these seventeen tube wells there is

but one man, me, your servant. In your service I have

earned these gray hairs”—here he bowed his head to

show the gray—“and now I cannot fulfill my duties

as I should. Enough, sir, enough. I beg you, forgive

50me my weakness. Better a darkened house and proud

hunger within than disgrace in the light of day.

Release me, I ask you, I beg you.”

The old man, well accustomed to these sorts of

speeches, though not usually this florid, filed away at

55his nails and waited for the breeze to stop.

“What’s the matter, Nawabdin?”

“Matter, sir? O what could be the matter in your

service. I’ve eaten your salt for all my years. But sir,

on the bicycle now, with my old legs, and with the

60many injuries I’ve received when heavy machinery

fell on me—I cannot any longer bicycle about like a

bridegroom from farm to farm, as I could when I

first had the good fortune to enter your employment.

I beg you, sir, let me go.”

65“And what’s the solution?” asked Harouni, seeing

that they had come to the crux. He didn’t particularly

care one way or the other, except that it touched on

his comfort—a matter of great interest to him.

“Well, sir, if I had a motorcycle, then I could

70somehow limp along, at least until I train up some

younger man.”

The crops that year had been good, Harouni felt

expansive in front of the fire, and so, much to the

disgust of the farm managers, Nawab received a

75brand-new motorcycle, a Honda 70. He even

managed to extract an allowance for gasoline.

The motorcycle increased his status, gave him

weight, so that people began calling him “Uncle,” and

asking his opinion on world affairs, about which he

80knew absolutely nothing. He could now range

further, doing a much wider business. Best of all,

now he could spend every night with his wife, who

had begged to live not on the farm but near her

family in Firoza, where also they could educate at

85least the two eldest daughters. A long straight road

ran from the canal headworks near Firoza all the way

to the Indus, through the heart of the K. K. Harouni

lands. Nawab would fly down this road on his new

machine, with bags and cloths hanging from every

90knob and brace, so that the bike, when he hit a bump,

seemed to be flapping numerous small vestigial

wings; and with his grinning face, as he rolled up to

whichever tube well needed servicing, with his ears

almost blown off, he shone with the speed of his


1The main purpose of the first paragraph is to

2As used in line 16, “kicks” most nearly means

3The author uses the image of an engineer at sea (lines 23-28) most likely to

4Which choice best supports the claim that Nawab performs his duties for Harouni well?

5In the context of the conversation between Nawab and Harouni, Nawab’s comments in lines 43-52 (“Sir . . . beg you”) mainly serve to

6Nawab uses the word “bridegroom” (line 62) mainly to emphasize that he’s no longer

7It can reasonably be inferred from the passage that Harouni provides Nawab with a motorcycle mainly because

8Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

9The passage states that the farm managers react to Nawab receiving a motorcycle with

10According to the passage, what does Nawab consider to be the best result of getting the motorcycle?

Questions 11-21 are based on the following passage

This passage is adapted from Stephen Coleman, Scott Anthony, and David E. Morrison, “Public Trust in the News.” ©2009 by Stephen Coleman.

The news is a form of public knowledge.

Unlike personal or private knowledge (such as the

health of one’s friends and family; the conduct of a

lineprivate hobby; a secret liaison), public knowledge

5increases in value as it is shared by more people. The

date of an election and the claims of rival candidates;

the causes and consequences of an environmental

disaster; a debate about how to frame a particular

law; the latest reports from a war zone—these are all

10examples of public knowledge that people are

generally expected to know in order to be considered

informed citizens. Thus, in contrast to personal or

private knowledge, which is generally left to

individuals to pursue or ignore, public knowledge is

15promoted even to those who might not think it

matters to them. In short, the circulation of public

knowledge, including the news, is generally regarded

as a public good which cannot be solely


20The production, circulation, and reception

of public knowledge is a complex process. It is

generally accepted that public knowledge should

be authoritative, but there is not always

common agreement about what the public needs to

25know, who is best placed to relate and explain it, and

how authoritative reputations should be determined

and evaluated. Historically, newspapers such as The

Times and broadcasters such as the BBC were widely

regarded as the trusted shapers of authoritative

30agendas and conventional wisdom. They embodied

the Oxford English Dictionary’s definition of

authority as the “power over, or title to influence, the

opinions of others.” As part of the general process of

the transformation of authority whereby there has

35been a reluctance to uncritically accept traditional

sources of public knowledge, the demand has been

for all authority to make explicit the frames of value

which determine their decisions. Centres of news

production, as our focus groups show, have not been

40exempt from this process. Not surprisingly perhaps

some news journalists feel uneasy about this

renegotiation of their authority:

Editors are increasingly casting a glance at the

“most read” lists on their own and other websites

45to work out which stories matter to readers and

viewers. And now the audience—which used to

know its place—is being asked to act as a kind of

journalistic ombudsman, ruling on our

credibility (broadcast journalist, 2008).

50The result of democratising access to TV news

could be political disengagement by the majority

and a dumbing down through a popularity

contest of stories (online news editor, 2007).

Despite the rhetorical bluster of these statements,

55they amount to more than straightforward

professional defensiveness. In their reference to an

audience “which used to know its place” and

conflation between democratisation and “dumbing

down,” they are seeking to argue for a particular

60mode of public knowledge: one which is shaped by

experts, immune from populist pressures; and

disseminated to attentive, but mainly passive

recipients. It is a view of citizenship that closes down

opportunities for popular involvement in the making

65of public knowledge by reinforcing the professional

claims of experts. The journalists quoted above are

right to feel uneasy, for there is, at almost every

institutional level in contemporary society,

scepticism towards the epistemological authority of

70expert elites. There is a growing feeling, as expressed

by several of our focus group participants, that the

news media should be “informative rather than

authoritative”; the job of journalists should be to

“give the news as raw as it is, without putting their

75slant on it”; and people should be given “sufficient

information” from which “we would be able to form

opinions of our own.”

At stake here are two distinct conceptions of

authority. The journalists we have quoted are

80resistant to the democratisation of news:

the supremacy of the clickstream (according to

which editors raise or lower the profile of stories

according to the number of readers clicking on them

online); the parity of popular culture with “serious”

85news; the demands of some audience members for

raw news rather than constructed narratives.


11The main purpose of the passage is to

12According to the passage, which expectation do traditional authorities now face?

13Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

14As used in line 24, “common” most nearly means

15The authors most likely include the extended quotations in lines 43-53 to

16The authors indicate that the public is coming to believe that journalists’ reports should avoid

17Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

18As used in line 74, “raw” most nearly means

19Based on the table, in which year were people the most trusting of the news media?

20Which statement is best supported by information presented in the table?

21The 2011 data in the table best serve as evidence of

Questions 22-32 are based on the following passage

This passage is adapted from Elsa Youngsteadt, “Decoding a Flower’s Message.” ©2012 by Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society.

Texas gourd vines unfurl their large, flared

blossoms in the dim hours before sunrise. Until they

close at noon, their yellow petals and mild, squashy

linearoma attract bees that gather nectar and shuttle

5pollen from flower to flower. But “when you

advertise [to pollinators], you advertise in an

open communication network,” says chemical

ecologist Ian Baldwin of the Max Planck Institute for

Chemical Ecology in Germany. “You attract not just

10the good guys, but you also attract the bad guys.” For

a Texas gourd plant, striped cucumber beetles are

among the very bad guys. They chew up pollen and

petals, defecate in the flowers and transmit the

dreaded bacterial wilt disease, an infection that can

15reduce an entire plant to a heap of collapsed tissue in

mere days.

In one recent study, Nina Theis and Lynn Adler

took on the specific problem of the Texas

gourd—how to attract enough pollinators but not

20too many beetles. The Texas gourd vine’s main

pollinators are honey bees and specialized squash

bees, which respond to its floral scent. The aroma

includes 10 compounds, but the most

abundant—and the only one that lures squash bees

25into traps—is 1,4-dimethoxybenzene.

Intuition suggests that more of that aroma should

be even more appealing to bees. “We have this

assumption that a really fragrant flower is going to

attract a lot of pollinators,” says Theis, a chemical

30ecologist at Elms College in Chicopee,

Massachusetts. But, she adds, that idea hasn’t really

been tested—and extra scent could well call in more

beetles, too. To find out, she and Adler planted

168 Texas gourd vines in an Iowa field and,

35throughout the August flowering season, made half

the plants more fragrant by tucking

dimethoxybenzene-treated swabs deep inside their

flowers. Each treated flower emitted about 45 times

more fragrance than a normal one; the other half of

40the plants got swabs without fragrance.

The researchers also wanted to know whether

extra beetles would impose a double cost by both

damaging flowers and deterring bees, which might

not bother to visit (and pollinate) a flower laden with

45other insects and their feces. So every half hour

throughout the experiments, the team plucked all the

beetles off of half the fragrance-enhanced flowers and

half the control flowers, allowing bees to respond to

the blossoms with and without interference by


Finally, they pollinated by hand half of the female

flowers in each of the four combinations of fragrance

and beetles. Hand-pollinated flowers should develop

into fruits with the maximum number of seeds,

55providing a benchmark to see whether the

fragrance-related activities of bees and beetles

resulted in reduced pollination.

“It was very labor intensive,” says Theis.

“We would be out there at four in the morning, three

60in the morning, to try and set up before these flowers

open.” As soon as they did, the team spent the next

several hours walking from flower to flower,

observing each for two-minute intervals “and writing

down everything we saw.”

65What they saw was double the normal number of

beetles on fragrance-enhanced blossoms.

Pollinators, to their surprise, did not prefer the

highly scented flowers. Squash bees were indifferent,

and honey bees visited enhanced flowers less often

70than normal ones. Theis thinks the bees were

repelled not by the fragrance itself, but by the

abundance of beetles: The data showed that the more

beetles on a flower, the less likely a honey bee was to

visit it.

75That added up to less reproduction for

fragrance-enhanced flowers. Gourds that developed

from those blossoms weighed 9 percent less and had,

on average, 20 fewer seeds than those from normal

flowers. Hand pollination didn’t rescue the seed set,

80indicating that beetles damaged flowers directly

—regardless of whether they also repelled

pollinators. (Hand pollination did rescue fruit

weight, a hard-to-interpret result that suggests that

lost bee visits did somehow harm fruit development.)

85The new results provide a reason that Texas gourd

plants never evolved to produce a stronger scent: “If

you really ramp up the odor, you don’t get more

pollinators, but you can really get ripped apart by

your enemies,” says Rob Raguso, a chemical ecologist

90at Cornell University who was not involved in the

Texas gourd study.

22The primary purpose of the passage is to

23As presented in the passage, Theis and Adler’s research primarily relied on which type of evidence?

24Which statement about striped cucumber beetles can most reasonably be inferred from the passage?

25The author indicates that it seems initially plausible that Texas gourd plants could attract more pollinators if they

26As used in line 38, “treated” most nearly means

27What did Theis and Adler do as part of their study that most directly allowed Theis to reason that “bees were repelled not by the fragrance itself” (lines 70-71)?

28Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

29The primary function of the seventh and eighth paragraphs (lines 65-84) is to

30In describing squash bees as “indifferent” (line 68), the author most likely means that they

31According to the passage, Theis and Adler’s research offers an answer to which of the following questions?

32Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

Questions 33-42 are based on the following passage

Passage 1 is adapted from Abraham Lincoln, “Address to the Young Men’s Lyceum of Springfield, Illinois.” Originally delivered in 1838. Passage 2 is from Henry David Thoreau, “Resistance to Civil Government.” Originally published in 1849.

Passage 1

Let every American, every lover of liberty, every

well wisher to his posterity, swear by the blood of the

Revolution, never to violate in the least particular,

linethe laws of the country; and never to tolerate their

5violation by others. As the patriots of seventy-six did

to the support of the Declaration of Independence, so

to the support of the Constitution and Laws, let every

American pledge his life, his property, and his sacred

honor;—let every man remember that to violate the

10law, is to trample on the blood of his father, and to

tear the character of his own, and his children’s

liberty. Let reverence for the laws, be breathed by

every American mother, to the lisping babe, that

prattles on her lap—let it be taught in schools, in

15seminaries, and in colleges;—let it be written in

Primers, spelling books, and in Almanacs;—let it be

preached from the pulpit, proclaimed in legislative

halls, and enforced in courts of justice. And, in short,

let it become the political religion of the nation;

20and let the old and the young, the rich and the poor,

the grave and the gay, of all sexes and tongues, and

colors and conditions, sacrifice unceasingly upon its

altars. . . .

When I so pressingly urge a strict observance of

25all the laws, let me not be understood as saying there

are no bad laws, nor that grievances may not arise,

for the redress of which, no legal provisions have

been made. I mean to say no such thing. But I do

mean to say, that, although bad laws, if they exist,

30should be repealed as soon as possible, still while they

continue in force, for the sake of example, they

should be religiously observed. So also in unprovided

cases. If such arise, let proper legal provisions be

made for them with the least possible delay; but, till

35then, let them if not too intolerable, be borne with.

There is no grievance that is a fit object of redress

by mob law. In any case that arises, as for instance,

the promulgation of abolitionism, one of two

positions is necessarily true; that is, the thing is right

40within itself, and therefore deserves the protection of

all law and all good citizens; or, it is wrong, and

therefore proper to be prohibited by legal

enactments; and in neither case, is the interposition

of mob law, either necessary, justifiable, or excusable.

Passage 2

45Unjust laws exist; shall we be content to obey

them, or shall we endeavor to amend them, and obey

them until we have succeeded, or shall we transgress

them at once? Men generally, under such a

government as this, think that they ought to wait

50until they have persuaded the majority to alter them.

They think that, if they should resist, the remedy

would be worse than the evil. But it is the fault of the

government itself that the remedy is worse than the

evil. It makes it worse. Why is it not more apt to

55anticipate and provide for reform? Why does it not

cherish its wise minority? Why does it cry and resist

before it is hurt? . . .

If the injustice is part of the necessary friction of

the machine of government, let it go, let it go;

60perchance it will wear smooth—certainly the

machine will wear out. If the injustice has a spring, or

a pulley, or a rope, or a crank, exclusively for itself,

then perhaps you may consider whether the remedy

will not be worse than the evil; but if it is of such a

65nature that it requires you to be the agent of injustice

to another, then, I say, break the law. Let your life be

a counter friction to stop the machine. What I have

to do is to see, at any rate, that I do not lend myself to

the wrong which I condemn.

70As for adopting the ways which the State has

provided for remedying the evil, I know not of such

ways. They take too much time, and a man’s life will

be gone. I have other affairs to attend to. I came into

this world, not chiefly to make this a good place to

75live in, but to live in it, be it good or bad. A man has

not everything to do, but something; and because he

cannot do everything, it is not necessary that he

should do something wrong. . . .

I do not hesitate to say, that those who call

80themselves Abolitionists should at once effectually

withdraw their support, both in person and property,

from the government . . . and not wait till they

constitute a majority of one, before they suffer the

right to prevail through them. I think that it is

85enough if they have God on their side, without

waiting for that other one. Moreover, any man more

right than his neighbors constitutes a majority of one


33In Passage 1, Lincoln contends that breaking the law has which consequence?

34Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

35As used in line 24, “urge” most nearly means

36The sentence in lines 24-28 (“When . . . made”) primarily serves which function in Passage 1?

37As used in line 32, “observed” most nearly means

38In Passage 2, Thoreau indicates that some unjust aspects of government are

39Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

40The primary purpose of each passage is to

41Based on the passages, Lincoln would most likely describe the behavior that Thoreau recommends in lines 64-66 (“if it . . . law”) as

42Based on the passages, one commonality in the stances Lincoln and Thoreau take toward abolitionism is that

Questions 43-52 are based on the following passage and supplementary material

This passage is adapted from Kevin Bullis, “What Tech Is Next for the Solar Industry?” ©2013 by MIT Technology Review.

Solar panel installations continue to grow quickly,

but the solar panel manufacturing industry is in the

doldrums because supply far exceeds demand. The

linepoor market may be slowing innovation, but

5advances continue; judging by the mood this week at

the IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference in

Tampa, Florida, people in the industry remain

optimistic about its long-term prospects.

The technology that’s surprised almost everyone

10is conventional crystalline silicon. A few years ago,

silicon solar panels cost $4 per watt, and

Martin Green, professor at the University of

New South Wales and one of the leading silicon solar

panel researchers, declared that they’d never go

15below $1 a watt. “Now it’s down to something like

50 cents a watt, and there’s talk of hitting 36 cents per

watt,” he says.

The U.S. Department of Energy has set a goal of

reaching less than $1 a watt—not just for the solar

20panels, but for complete, installed systems—by 2020.

Green thinks the solar industry will hit that target

even sooner than that. If so, that would bring the

direct cost of solar power to six cents per

kilowatt-hour, which is cheaper than the average cost

25expected for power from new natural gas power


All parts of the silicon solar panel industry have

been looking for ways to cut costs and improve the

power output of solar panels, and that’s led to steady

30cost reductions. Green points to something as

mundane as the pastes used to screen-print some of

the features on solar panels. Green’s lab built a solar

cell in the 1990s that set a record efficiency for silicon

solar cells—a record that stands to this day. To

35achieve that record, he had to use expensive

lithography techniques to make fine wires for

collecting current from the solar cell. But gradual

improvements have made it possible to use screen

printing to produce ever-finer lines. Recent research

40suggests that screen-printing techniques can produce

lines as thin as 30 micrometers—about the width of

the lines Green used for his record solar cells, but at

costs far lower than his lithography techniques.

Meanwhile, researchers at the National Renewable

45Energy Laboratory have made flexible solar cells on a

new type of glass from Corning called Willow Glass,

which is thin and can be rolled up. The type of solar

cell they made is the only current challenger to

silicon in terms of large-scale production—thin-film

50cadmium telluride. Flexible solar cells could lower

the cost of installing solar cells, making solar power


One of Green’s former students and colleagues,

Jianhua Zhao, cofounder of solar panel manufacturer

55China Sunergy, announced this week that he is

building a pilot manufacturing line for a two-sided

solar cell that can absorb light from both the front

and back. The basic idea, which isn’t new, is that

during some parts of the day, sunlight falls on the

60land between rows of solar panels in a solar power

plant. That light reflects onto the back of the panels

and could be harvested to increase the power output.

This works particularly well when the solar panels

are built on sand, which is highly reflective. Where a

65one-sided solar panel might generate 340 watts, a

two-sided one might generate up to 400 watts. He

expects the panels to generate 10 to 20 percent more

electricity over the course of a year.

Even longer-term, Green is betting on silicon,

70aiming to take advantage of the huge reductions in

cost already seen with the technology. He hopes to

greatly increase the efficiency of silicon solar panels

by combining silicon with one or two other

semiconductors, each selected to efficiently convert a

75part of the solar spectrum that silicon doesn’t convert

efficiently. Adding one semiconductor could boost

efficiencies from the 20 to 25 percent range to

around 40 percent. Adding another could make

efficiencies as high as 50 percent feasible, which

80would cut in half the number of solar panels needed

for a given installation. The challenge is to produce

good connections between these semiconductors,

something made challenging by the arrangement of

silicon atoms in crystalline silicon.



43The passage is written from the point of view of a

44As used in line 4, “poor” most nearly means

45It can most reasonably be inferred from the passage that many people in the solar panel industry believe that

46Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

47According to the passage, two-sided solar panels will likely raise efficiency by

48Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

49As used in line 69, “betting on” most nearly means

50The last sentence of the passage mainly serves to

51According to figure 1, in 2017, the cost of which of the following fuels is projected to be closest to the 2009 US average electricity cost shown in figure 2?

52According to figure 2, in what year is the average cost of solar photovoltaic power projected to be equal to the 2009 US average electricity cost?

Writing and Language Test



Each passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For some questions, you will consider how the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. For other questions, you will consider how the passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence structure, usage, or punctuation. A passage or a question may be accompanied by one or more graphics (such as a table or graph) that you will consider as you make revising and editing decisions.

Some questions will direct you to an underlined portion of a passage. Other questions will direct you to a location in a passage or ask you to think about the passage as a whole.

After reading each passage, choose the answer to each question that most effectively improves the quality of writing in the passage or that makes the passage conform to the conventions of standard written English. Many questions include a“NO CHANGE”option. Choose that option if you think the best choice is to leave the relevant portion of the passage as it is.

Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage
A Necessary Resource for Science

In the winter of 1968, scientists David Schindler and Gregg Brunskill poured nitrates and phosphates into Lake 1 227, this is one of the 58 freshwater bodies that compose Canada’s remotely located Experimental Lakes Area. Schindler and Brunskill were contaminating the water not out of malice but in the name of research. While deliberately adding chemical compounds to a lake may seem 2 destructive and irresponsible, this method of experimenting is sometimes the most effective way to influence policy and save the environment from even more damaging pollution.

Schindler and Brunskill were investigating possible causes for the large blooms of blue-green algae, or cyanobacteria, that had been affecting bodies of water such as Lake Erie. 3 In addition to being unsightly and odorous, these algal blooms cause oxygen depletion. Oxygen depletion kills fish and other wildlife in the lakes. Just weeks after the scientists added the nitrates and phosphates, the water in Lake 227 turned bright 4 green. It was thick with: the same type of algal blooms that had plagued Lake Erie.

5 One mission of the Experimental Lakes Area is to conduct research that helps people better understand threats to the environment. The scientists divided the lake in half by placing a nylon barrier through the narrowest part of its figure-eight shape. In one half of Lake 226, they added phosphates, nitrates, and a source of carbon; in the other, they added just nitrates 6 and a source of carbon was added. Schindler and Brunskill hypothesized that phosphates were responsible for the growth of cyanobacteria. The experiment confirmed their suspicions when the half of the lake containing the phosphates 7 was teeming with blue-green algae.

Schindler and Brunskill’s findings were 7 shown off by the journal Science. The research demonstrated a clear correlation between introducing phosphates and the growth of blue-green algae. 8 For example, legislators in Canada passed laws banning phosphates in laundry detergents, which had been entering the water supply. 10

Experiments like these can help people understand the unintended consequences of using certain household products. 111 Of course, regulating the use of certain chemical compounds can be a controversial issue. Selectively establishing remote study locations, such as the Experimental Lakes Area, can provide scientists with opportunities to safely conduct controlled research. This research can generate evidence solid enough to persuade policy makers to take action in favor of protecting the larger environment.



3Which choice most effectively combines the underlined sentences?


5Which choice provides the best transition from the previous paragraph to this one?





10At this point, the writer wants to add a second policy outcome of the research described. Which choice best accomplishes this goal?

11Which choice most effectively anticipates and addresses a relevant counterargument to the argument in favor of the types of experiments described in the passage?

Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage
A Little to the Left, but Not Too Much!

Italy’s Tower of Pisa has been leaning southward since the initial 12 stages of it’s construction over 800 years ago. 13 Indeed, if the tower’s construction had not taken two centuries and involved significant breaks due to war and civil unrest, which allowed the ground beneath the tower to settle, the tower would likely have collapsed before it was completed.

Luckily, the tower survived, and its tilt has made it an Italian 14 icon, it attracts visitors from all over who flock to Pisa to see one of the greatest architectural 15 weirdnesses in the world. 16 By the late twentieth century, the angle of the tower’s tilt had reached an astonishing 5.5 degrees; in 17 1990, Italy’s government closed the tower to visitors and appointed a committee to find a way to save it.

The committee was charged with saving the tower without ruining its aesthetic, 18 which no one had yet managed to achieve. The committee’s first attempt to reduce the angle of the tower’s tilt—placing 600 tons of iron ingots (molded pieces of metal) on the tower’s north side to create a counterweight—was derided because the bulky weights ruined the tower’s appearance. The attempt at a less visible solution—sinking anchors into the ground below the tower—almost caused the tower to fall.

[1] Enter committee member John Burland, 19 he is a geotechnical engineer from England who saved London’s clock tower Big Ben from collapse. [2] Burland began a years-long process of drilling out small amounts of soil from under the tower 20 that took several years to complete and then monitoring the tower’s resulting movement. [3] Twice daily, Burland evaluated these movements and made recommendations as to how much soil should be removed in the next drilling. [4] By 2001, almost 77 tons of soil had been removed, and the tower’s tilt had decreased by over 1.5 degrees; the ugly iron weights were removed, and the tower was reopened to visitors. [5] Burland 21 advocated using soil extraction: removing small amounts of soil from under the tower’s north side, opposite its tilt, to enable gravity to straighten the tower. 22

The tower’s tilt has not increased since, and the committee is confident that the tower will be safe for another 200 years. Burland is now working on a more permanent solution for keeping the tower upright, but he is adamant that the tower never be completely straightened. In an interview with PBS’s Nova, Burland explained that it is very important “that we don’t really change the character of the monument. That would be quite wrong and quite inappropriate.”





16At this point, the writer is considering adding the following sentence. "Unfortunately, the tower’s tilt has steadily increased over the centuries, placing the structure in danger of collapse." Should the writer make this addition here?


18Which choice best supports the main point of the paragraph?




22To make this paragraph most logical, sentence 5 should be

Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage and supplementary material
The Physician Assistant Will See You Now

23 The term “paramedics” refers to health care workers who provide routine and clinical services. While the pressures of an aging population, insurance reforms, and health epidemics have increased demand for care, the supply of physicians is not expected to 24 keep pace. The Association of American Medical Colleges predicts a shortage of over 90,000 physicians by 2020; by 2025, that number could climb to more than 130,000. In some parts of the country, shortages are already a sad fact of life. A 2009 report by the Bureau of Health Professions notes that although a fifth of the US population lives in rural areas, less than a tenth of US physicians serves that population. Because a traditionalist response to the crisis— 25 amping up medical-college enrollments and expanding physician training programs—is too slow and costly to address the near-term problem, alternatives are being explored. One promising avenue has been greater reliance on physician assistants (PAs).

26 By virtue of 27 there medical training, PAs can perform many of the jobs traditionally done by doctors, including treating chronic and acute conditions, performing minor 28 surgeries: and prescribing some medications. However, although well 29 compensated earning in 2012 a median annual salary of $90,930, PAs cost health care providers less than do the physicians who might otherwise undertake these tasks. Moreover, the training period for PAs is markedly shorter than 30 those for physicians—two to three years versus the seven to eleven required for physicians.

Physician assistants already offer vital primary care in many locations. Some 90,000 PAs were employed nationwide in 2012. Over and above their value in partially compensating for the general physician shortage has been their extraordinary contribution to rural health care. A recent review of the scholarly literature by Texas researchers found that PAs lend cost-efficient, widely appreciated services in underserved areas. 31 In addition, rural-based PAs often provide a broader spectrum of such services than do their urban and suburban counterparts, possibly as a consequence of the limited pool of rural-based physicians.

Increasingly, PAs and other such medical practitioners have become a critical complement to physicians. A 2013 RAND Corporation report estimates that while the number of primary care physicians will increase slowly from 2010 to 2025, the number of physician assistants and nurse-practitioners in primary care will grow at much faster rates. 32 Both by merit and from necessity, PAs are likely to greet more 33 patience than ever before.


23Which choice is the best introduction to the paragraph?



26At this point, the writer is considering adding the following sentence. “Several factors argue in favor of such an expanded role.” Should the writer make this addition here?






32At this point, the writer is considering adding the following sentence. "In fact, according to the data presented in the table, physician assistants will likely outnumber physicians by 2025." Should the writer make this addition here?


Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage
Gold into Silver: The “Reverse Alchemy” of Superhero Comics History

34 Popular film franchises are often “rebooted” in an effort to make their characters and stories fresh and relevant for new audiences. Superhero comic books are periodically reworked to try to increase their appeal to contemporary readers. This practice is almost as 35 elderly as the medium itself and has in large part established the “ages” that compose comic book history. The shift from the Golden to the Silver Age is probably the most successful 36 example: of publishers responding to changing times and tastes.

The start of the first (“Golden”) age of comic books is often dated to 1938 with the debut of Superman in Action Comics #1. Besides beginning the age, Superman in many respects defined it, becoming the model on which many later superheroes were based. His characterization, as established in Superman #1 (1939), was relatively simple. He could “hurdle skyscrapers” and “leap an eighth of a mile”; “run faster than a streamline train”; withstand anything less than a “bursting shell”; and 37 lift a car over his head. Sent to Earth from the “doomed planet” Krypton, he was raised by human foster parents, whose love helped infuse him with an unapologetic desire to “benefit mankind.” Admirable but aloof, the Golden Age Superman was arguably more paragon than character, a problem only partially solved by giving him a human alter ego. Other Golden Age superheroes were similarly archetypal: Batman was a crime-fighting millionaire, Wonder Woman a warrior princess from a mythical island.

By contrast, the second (“Silver”) age of comics was marked by characters that, though somewhat simplistic by today’s standards, 38 were provided with origin stories often involving scientific experiments gone wrong. In addition to super villains, the new, soon-to-be-iconic characters of the 39 age: Spider-Man, the Fantastic Four, and the Hulk among them—had to cope with mundane, real-life problems, including paying the rent, dealing with family squabbles, and facing anger, loneliness, and ostracism. Their interior lives were richer and their motivations more complex. Although sales remained strong for Golden Age stalwarts Superman and, to a lesser extent, Batman, 40 subsequent decades would show the enduring appeal of these characters.

More transformations would take place in the medium as the Silver Age gave way to the Bronze and Modern (and possibly Postmodern) Ages. Such efforts 41 have yielded diminishing returns, as even the complete relaunch of DC 42 Comics’ superhero’s, line in 2011 has failed to arrest the steep two-decade decline of comic book sales. For both commercial and, arguably, creative reasons, 43 then, no transition was more successful than 44 those from the Golden to Silver Age.

34Which choice most effectively combines the underlined sentences?



37Which choice is most consistent with the previous examples in the sentence?

38Which choice most effectively sets up the main idea of the following two sentences?


40The writer wants a conclusion to the sentence and paragraph that logically completes the discussion of the Silver Age and provides an effective transition into the next paragraph. Which choice best accomplishes these goals?